Sri Purusha Suktam
adbhyassambhoota: prthivyai rasAcca | vishvakarmaNassamavartatAdhi | tasya tvaSHTA vidadhadroopameti | tatpuruSHasya vishvamAjAnamagre || 1 ||
(adbhya:) From the waters and from the (rasAt) elemental essence
of (prthivyai) earth (sambhoota:) was the bramhAnda, the
Universe, born. (vishvakarmaNa:) As vishvakarma, the divine
architect, did puruSHa, who is (adhi) more than that Universe, appear
(samavartata). (tvashTA) As tvashTA, the divine smith he
(vidadhat) establishes (tasya roopam) his form, that includes all the
worlds (eti) and manifests it everywhere. (agre) In the beginning
was (tat puruSHasya) that puruSHa's (vishvam) all, his vishva
roopa, (Ajanam) formed.
The waters of destruction are again the waters of creation, and from them does the earth reveal itself after praLaya. From these elemental materials is the universe formed, and into these it dissolves. Ashes to ashes, and dust to dust. tvashTA was the smith who forges Indra's vajra, thunderbolt, from the bones of the RSHi dadeechi. Vishvakarma is the divine architect who planned and built, among other cities, Kubera's Alakaapuri and also Lanka, and Indra's city.
vedAhametam puruSHam mahAntam | AdityavarNam tamasas pArastAt | tamevam vidhvAnamrta iha bhavati | nAnya: panthA vidhyate ayanAya || 2 ||
(etam) That (mahAntam) glorious (AdityavarNam) sun-brilliant
(puruSHam) puruSHa, (astu) who transcends (pArastAt) all
(tamas) darkness, (aham) I (veda:) know him.(vidvAn) Who
knows (tam) Him (evam) in this manner (bhavati) becomes
(amrta:) immortal (iha) in this very birth. (ayaNaya) To moksha,
liberation (na vidhyate) I know not of (anya:) other (panthA:)
This is a re-working of shlokas 16 and 17 in the first lesson, or pratama anuvAka.
prajApatischarati garbhe anta: | ajAyamAno bahudhA vijAyate | tasya dheerA: parijAnanti yonim | mareecheenAm padamiccanti vedhasa: || 3 ||
(prajApati:) As prajApati, Lord of his Subjects, he (carati)
lives (anta:) in (garbhe) the womb. (ajAyamAna: ) Unborn,
(vijAyate) he appears (bahudhA) in many ways. (dheerA:) The
steadfast (parijAnanti) know well (tasya) his (yonim) true form.
Even (vedhasa:) the creators, the knowers (iccanti) desire to the
(padam) positions of (mareechenAm) sages like mareechi, who
I must go to sAyaNa for commentary on this rather obtuse verse. What is this womb prajApati resides in ? 'bramhAnda roope garbhe anat madhye prajApatir vigrahavAn bhootva carati'. virAt, the shining universe, the female principle that puruSHa gave birth to, which in turn gave birth to puruSHa has now been formed into the bramhAnda, and is compared to a womb, in which prajApati, Lord of his Subjects, puruSHa manifested as a fertility diety invoked in weddings etc., resides. Purusha does not need to be born to manifest himself as all. That process begins before he appears from, in and as virAt. He encompasses satyam, gnyaanam, anantam - truth, knowledge, and infinity. Since he gives birth to all, he is yoni, themouth of the womb. His form is a yoni, from which all is born. 'tasya prajApater yonim jagatkAraNaroopam vAstavam svaroopam'. Who knows this ? 'dheera dhairyavantA yogena drtendriyA mahAtmAno jAnanti' - the brave, the courageous, those who have made their senses steadfast in yoga, those great ones know this truth. Such is the compulsion of this truth that even the srshtikartA-s of this world, those that puruSHa has manifested himself as in order to create, desire nothing but to worship him as 'tam eva upAsya mareeceenAm mareecyatri-pramukhAnAm' - the sage mareeci, and sages led by mareeci, atri (among the seven RSHis) - as these sages do.
yo devebhya Atapati | yo devAnAm purohita: | poorvo yo devebhyo jAta: | namo rucAya brAhmaye || 4 ||
(nama:) We salute (ya:) who (Atapati) shines as divinity in
(devebhya:) in the Gods, (ya:) who is (purohita:) Brhaspati, priest
to (devAnAm) the Gods, (ya:) who was (jAta:) born (poorva:)
before (devebhya:) the Gods, (rucAya) who brilliant in himself,
(brahmaye) is the parabramham, the supreme all.
puruSHa was, 'hiraNyagarbha: samavartatAgre' - before the golden shining womb of all, virAt, was established. He is first of all the Gods, their priest, their guide to immortality, and the essence of their divinity. verily is he worthy of our salutations. This is one answer to the question "kasmai devAya havitA vidhema?" - Which God shall we worship by our offerings ?
rucam brAmham janayanta: | deva agre tadabruvan | yastvaivam brAhmaNo vidhyAt | tasya deva asan vashe || 5 ||
(deva) The Gods, who (janayanta) send forth the (rucam
brAhmam) essence of the knowledge of Brahman (abruvan) said
this (tat) about that Brahman (agre) in the Beginning : " (yastu)
whoever (brAhmaNa:) has an inclination towards Brahman, if he
(vidhyAt) knows Brahman (evam) thus, (devA:) the Gods (asan)
will be (tasya) in his (vashe) control. "
The Gods taste of Brahman.. This "rucam brAmham" is yet another food metaphor for the joining, or the union of the seeker and the sought. Even as he who eats food tastes it, so shall you taste Brahman, and enjoy him. The Gods are in the Brahma- Vidyaa-Sampradaaya, and they are our teachers, our gurus too. They declare this in the beginning, as a sort of 'phalashruti', or list of fruits of knowing the puruSHa thus : Who, with heart steadfast on the puruSHa knows him thus, him even we will serve. Compare the Taittiriya Upanishad, that talks about he who knows Brahman - 'sarve asmai devA balim-Aharanti' - All the Gods bring him offerings.
hreeshca te lakshmeeshca patnyau | ahorAtre pArshve | nakshatrANi roopam | ashvinau vyAttam | iSHTam maniSHANa | amum maniSHANa | sarvam maniSHANA ||(hreeshca) Hree and (lakshmishca) Laskhmi are (patnyau) wives (te)
Hree is the Goddess that grants Modesty, and Lakshmi she who grants Wealth. ( hreer-lajjAbhimAninee devata , lakshmee- raishvayAbhimAninee devatA - iti sAyaNA) The Day and the Night are even such opposites. Sriman Narayana is the conciliation of all such opposites, even as Sesha, the snake, and garuda, the eagle, worshipping him together signify. He is brilliant as the stars, and healing comes from him.
Asking him to grant as iSHTam, amum, sarvam, is an analogue to asking for sat, Ananda, and chit. All we ask is to know Him.