You are here: Sri Vaishnava Home Page : Bhakti List : Archives : September 1999

SRIMAD VEDANTA DESIKA GADHYAM Continued- Part 3 - (17 to 18)

Ramanbil_at_aol.com
Date: Thu Sep 23 1999 - 06:45:15 PDT

SRIMAD VEDANTA DESIKA GADHYAM 
Continued- Part 3 - (17 to 18)
(Anbil Ramaswamy)
==================================================

17. SAnkhya, naiyAyika, vaisEshika, chAruvAka, Aarhatha
vaibAshika, soudhrandrika, yogAchAra, mAdhyamika,
prachchannabouddha, pAsupatha, bhatta-prabhAkara, 
bhAskareeya, yAdhavaprakAsa, ekAyana 
itjhAdhi  matha tamO nivAraNa diwAkara ! 

(meaning and Notes)
You are the brilliant Sun dispelling the darkness spread by the 
philosophies of - 

1.SANKHYA  (School of enumeration) 
also known as  Evolutionary dualism founded by 
sage KAPILA. 

This is a philosophy of dualistic monism. Samkhya has 
several meanings like `enumeration', `investigation' or 
`analysis' of the categories of the phenomenal world. 
It differentiates between spirit (Purusha) and matter 
(prakriti). It holds  that salvation is to be obtained by 
a complete separation of soul and matter. The most 
important work on Samkhya philosophy are VACHASPATI 
MISIRA'S TATTVA KAUMUDHI and ISVARAKRISHNA'S 
SAMKHYA KARIKA

2. NAIYAYIKA or NYAYA 
(School of Rule and Logical Analysis or realism) founded by  
GAUTAMA aka AKSHAPADA (not Gautama Buddha)
The achievement of individual liberation (mOksha) where one
does not feel pleasure or pain is sought to be proved by logical analysis 
and philosophical argument. But, the system was empirical, 
relying too rigidly on perception and inference like 
Aristotle's syllogistic analysis, comparison and testimony 
and on its inductive premises.
 
3. VAISESHIKA 
(School of distinct characteristics also known as Atomistic or Realistic 
pluralism) founded by KANADA also known as `ULUKA'. This refers to `visEsha' 
- a category of knowledge concerning essential differences, individuality, 
particularity of the eternal substances called `dravya' comprising prithvi 
(Earth), Apas (Water) tEjas (Light) vAyu (Air) AkAsa (Ether) kAla (Time) dis 
(Space), Atman (Self) and manas (mind) which differed from each other 
essentially. Vaiseshika accepted only perception and inference. Like the 
NYAYA school, it failed to carry its theism to the point where the supreme 
being is the reality. Ultimately, like NyAya, the Vaiseshika philosophy 
became integrated with Vedanta.

All the above schools are called `haituka' from `HEtu' meaning questioning 
why seeking the cause and  reason for everything in the phenominal world.

4. CHARVAKA
Attributed to one `CHARVAKA' about whom very little is known. It is a 
materialistic school.  The word Charvaka means 'beautifully '(Charu) 'told' 
(Vak). The work representing its views viz.,  BRIHASPATI SUTRA (600 BC) is 
lost. It arose out of growing scepticism towards Vedic dogmas. They recognize 
only Pratyaksha or Anubhava (Direct experience) and to a limited extent 
AnumAna and upamAna (Inference and Analogy) and rejected all PramAna 
(authority)  and  SampradAya (Practices of holy ones). Their philosophy is 
known as `YadrEcha vAda' - the theory of accidental causation. Pursuit of 
pleasure was their only aim and object in life.

5. AARHATHA: 
Founded by PARSVANATHA (8c.B.C) and MAHAVIRA VARDHAMANA (6c. B.C.). The word 
is derived from the root `JIT' (victorious) a celibate order of itinerant 
monks which also split into Digambara (Skyclad) and Svetambara (white robed) 
based on discipline and convention rather than on doctrine. They united again 
as `Arhatas' and belonged mainly to the ruling class (KSHATRIYAS) and placed 
great emphasis on AHIMSA (Non Violence).

BOUDDHA : of Gautama Buddha (6c. B.C)
Consisting of- 
6. VAIBHASHIKA,
7. SOUDHRANDRIKA, 
8. YOGACHARA and 
9. MADHYAMIKA
This was founded by SIDDHARTHA who came to be known as `BUDDHA' (Enlightened) 
who advocated an 8 - fold path of Right view, Right thought, Right speech, 
Right livelihood, Right effort, Right action, Right mindfulness and Right 
concentration to achieve, what they call " nirvana" and accepted only the 3 
fold jewels to surrender oneself to viz Buddham, Sangam and Dhammam (a 
prakrit word for Dharma). 

The curious thing about Buddhism is that while BUDDHA started as an 
`lconoclast' he soon came to be worshipped as `icon' himself. Buddhism was 
inevitably drawn into the vortex of Hinduism and became totally extinct in 
the land of its birth.
While early Buddhism was known as HinAyAna  (or thErAvAda) later day Buddhism 
came to be Known as MahAyAna - meaning "little vehicle" and the "Great 
vehicle" respectively - Finally, Buddhism split into several scattered 
communities. Hinayana split into VaibAshikas and Sourandrikas while Mahayana 
split into  YogAchAras (or VirnamavAda) and MAdhyamika (or SoonyavAda) - only 
to disintegrate and disappear in due course in India.

10. PRACHCHANNA BOUDDHA or MAYAVADINS
ADVAITA ( MAyAvAda) founded by GAUDAPADA, the first exponent of Advaita was 
followed by ADHI SANKARA. Influenced by Soonya vAda, the Advaita Philosophy 
relied on AbEda Srutis (Non-differential) of the Vedas. They held that ATMA 
of  JEEVATMA and of PARAMATMA are one and the same. They were never 
different. If  they appeared different, it is due to MAYA (illusion). Except 
PARAM all the rest was unreal very much akin to Soonyavada (non existence or 
void or Nirvana) argument of the Buddhists. Hence, the Advaitists were called 
' Prachchanna Bouddhas.'-Crypto-Buddhists.

11. PASUPATA, 
12. BHATTAPRABHAKARA, 
13. BHASKARIYA, 
14. YADHAVA PRAKASA and 
15. EKAYANA
Those which did not accept the authority of the Vedas are called NASTIKA 
(Denial). They are heterodox in their outlook and cannot in the strictest 
terms be called `DARSANAS'. Though there arose several schools of `NASTIKA' 
thoughts most of them had no significant following and no foundations strong 
enough to sustain and therefore perished with their founder exponents 

16. ITHYADHI- and others including such mushroom faiths like-
(a)  SOUGATHA
(b)  KUMARILA
(c )  BHARHASPATYA etc. besides others already extant and were *yet to 
appear.*

18. pAshANDa, vithaNDA-vAdha, nAstika, hythuka, kudrishti, kuyukti, jalpa 
dhruma shaNDa KhaNDana chaNDa pavana/ 

(meaning and Notes)
You were the fierce tornado that uprooted and smashed to smithereens the wild 
forest of - 
pAshAnDis:      heretics and hypocrites who pose to be virtuous but are vile
VithaNDAvAdhins:    those engaged in vain arguments 
NAstikas:           Atheists
Hythukas:           those who heckle for the sake of embarassing demanding      
                reasons for everything
kudhrishtis:        those whose views are distorted
kuyuktas:           those who misinterpret, being mentally perverse, 
conceited and                   taking delight in tormenting and vilifying 
others.

(To continue)
=============================================================