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Three devout KrishNa Bhakthaas : Sri JayadEvA , Sri naarAyaNa TheerthA and Sri KshEthrayyA .

From: Sadagopan (
Date: Wed Sep 22 1999 - 19:29:05 PDT

Dear Sri KrishNa BhakthAs : 

Sri Haresh BalasubramaNian of Singapore and 
the creator of the excellent Sri Krishna Home pages 
( requested me
to write on few more Sri krishna BhakthAs , who
have performed NaadhOpaasanA . I am happy to do so.

The BhakthAs coming to my mind are Sri Jaya DevA , 
Sri NaarAyana Theerthaa and KshEtrayyaa .There is a 
general belief that Sri Jaya DevA reincarnated as 
NaarAyaNa Theerthaa first and then as KshEthrayyaa 
to celebrate the theme of a NaayikA's love for
Lord KrishNA . Let me start with Sri JayadEvA .

Sri KrishNArpanam asthu



Sri JayadEvA of the Ashtapadhi fame , who inserted 
the refrain " JAYA JAYADEVA HARE " in his immortal poem,
Gita Govindam , described himself as the wandering king 
of bards. He asserted his special love for Sri Krishna
with the above refrain that he placed at the end of each
of his song .

He was a native of Orissa-Bengal region and lived during
the latter half of the twelfth century .This was soon after
AchArya RaamAnujA's dhig vijayam to Puri JagannAth . AchArya
RaamAnujA had grown the community of Sri VaishNavAs in and
around Orissa, Bengal and Assam during that visit .

Sanskrit scholarship and VaishNavism were dominant in those 
times among the community of Brahmins there .The ruling king
of the sEnA dynasty of Jaya DevA's time was  LakshmaNa sEnA 
known as a parama VaishNavA . AchArya RaamAnujA had converted
the king of Puri earlier into Sri Vaishnavam and had introduced
Sri ViashnavA rituals in the JagannAth temple of Puri .Sri
JayadEvA came during his wanderings as an ascetic-poet to
Puri and came under the influence of the Sri JagannAth worship
and married the lovely temple dancer , PadmAvathi .Gita Govindam 
was born there and took roots there as the only song to be sung
in front of the Elder Lord (BalarAmA ) and the Younger Lord
( Jagannaath) from their evening meal time to their bed time.
That practise is followed even today spanning  a period of 
seven centuries. 

In JayadEvA's time , the eleven RaagAs used 
for singing the Gita Govindam slOkams were : Maalavai,
Gurjari ,VasantA , Raamakari ,KarnAtA ,DesAkhyA ,
DesavarAdi,Naata ,Bhairavi, VirAdi and VibhAsa .
Some of these eleven RaagAs are not in vogue now. Some 
modern day musicians sing the First song on 
the mood of Joyful KrishNA celebrated as DasAvathAran
in MeLa Raagams , KanakAngi, RathnAngi , GhAna Moorthy ,
Vanaspathi , Maanavathi , DhAna Roopi et al .  

The song of JayadevA has touched every corner of India 
during these centuries and great mystic saints like 
Chaithanya prabhu , Bhaktha MeerA Bhai and
a host of others have been profoundly influenced by
this illustrious , dramatic lyrical poem with eight 
stanzas (ashtapadhi)in each of the individual songs .
The lilting words and the enchanting rhythmical beat 
are embellished further by "the repetitious sound patterns
of alliteration , assonance, consonance and end rhyme ". 
The sensous imagery of the songs of Gita Govindam are of
a divine kind and create madhura BhAvam and sabdhAlankAram
echoing the particular mood , time and season .Eleven aptly
chosen raagAs are used by jayadEva kavi to express the 
intimate power of divine love and the samslEsaha - 
VislEsha anubhavams of the visEsha Naayikai (RaadhA) for 
her Naayakan ( Jagadhisan , Lord KrishNA ).The Bhakthi rasam 
experienced by us in hearing these songs of Gita Govindam 
is an anubhavam without parallel .KrishNA's special love
for RadhA ,not highlighted by Bhaagavatha PurANam , is the 
theme of Gita Govindam and is an allegory of the relationship
between the ParamAthman and the JeevAthman. As we hear
these songs in front of Lord JagannAth at Poori 
or in front of Sri GuruvAyUrappan at KeraLA , tears 
well up in our eyes .The anubhavam of ParAnkusa ,
ParakAla and Venkata Naayakis come to our minds.

There are twelve parts to Gita Govindam 
and the moods of the Lord inlove play are
aptly indicated by the titles of the sargams :

1. The Joyful KrishNA (SaamOdha DhaamOdhara:)
2. The Careles KrishNA (aklEsa Kesava:)
3. The Bewildered KrishNA (Mugdha Madhusoodhana:)
4. The Tender KrishNA (Snighdha Madhusoodhana:)
5. The Lotus-Eyed KrishNA longing for Love
   (SaakAnksha PuNdarIkAksha:)
6. The Indolent KrishNA ( Kunta Vaikunta:)
7. The Cunning KrishNA ( Naagara NaarAyaNa:)
8. The Abashed KrishNA ( Vilakshya LakshmI Pathi:)
9. The Languishing KrishNA ( Mandha Mukundha:)
10.The Four Quickening Arms ( Chathura Chathurbhuja:)
11.The Blissful KrishNA ( Saanandha DhAmOdhara:)
12.The Ecstatic KrishNA ( SuprItha PeethAmbhara:)

Each of these slOkams are lyrical master pieces .
Inview of the need to be brief , I will content 
myself with limited translations of specific slOkams:

" Listen to the perfect invocation of poet JayadEvA
  Joyously evoking the essence of existence !
  You take the tenfold cosmic form , KrishNA .
  Triumph , Hari , Lord of the World !--Sargam 1.15

Sri JayadEva kavEritdhamudhitham udhAram
SruNu Sughadham Subhadham Bhava saaram
Kesava dhrutha dasavidha Roopa 
Jaya Jaya JagadhIsa HarE !-- Sargam 1.15

  For upholding the World  (VedhAnuddharathE)
  For Supporting the earth (JagannivahathE)
  For raising the World ( BhUgOLamudhbhibrathE)
  For tearing the demon asunder ( Dhaithyam DhArayathE)
  For Cheating bali ( Bhalim ChalayathE)
  For destroying the warrior Class (Kshathra Kshayam KurvathE)
  For Conquering ravaNA (Poulasthyam jayathE)
  For Wielding the Plow (Halam KalayathE)
  For spreading Compassion (KaaruNyam AathanvathE)
  For routing the barbarians (MlEcchAn MoorchayathE)
  Homage to You , KrishNA ,(KrishNAya Thubhyam Nama:)
  In Your ten incarnate Forms!" ( DasAkruthi KruthE)--Sargam 1.16

 Sri KrishNAya Thubhayam namO Nama: 

Daasan, Oppiliappan Koil VaradAchAri SadagOpan