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SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 41.

From: Krishnamachari, N (Krish) (nkrish_at_lucent.com)
Date: Mon Sep 28 1998 - 14:18:55 PDT

Thanks.		SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 41.

	udbhavah kshobaNo devah SrI-garbhah parameSvarah             |
	karaNam kAraNam kartA vikartA gahano guhah                    ||

om udbhavAya namah
om kshobaNAya namah
om devAya namah
om SrI-garbhAya namah
om parameSvarAya namah
om karaNAya namah
om kAraNAya namah
om kartre namah
om vikartre namah
om gahaNAya namah
om guhAya namah

375. udbhavah - a) He who removes the bondage.
		b) He who is beyond the bondage of samsAra.
		c) He who is the origin of the Universe.

om udbhavAya namah

One who removes the bondage of samsAra of those who meditate upon Him.  SrI
BhaTTar points out that those who meditate on the incident of His being
bound by the rope (kaNNinuN Sirut-tAmbinAl kaTTuNNap paNNiya perumAyan) will
be removed from the bondage of samsAra - udbhavo bhavah asmAt iti udbhavah.
SrI Sankara gives the interpretation is that He is free from the bondage of
existence, and so He is udbhavah - udgato bhavAt samsArAt iti udbhavah.

SrI Sankara's alternate interpretation is that He is the Origin of the
Universe - prapa~nca utpatti upAdAna kAraNatvAt udbhavah. 

376.  khsobhaNah - The Creator of a commotion.

om khshobaNAya namah.

The nAma is derived from the root kshub - sa~ncalane to cause motion or
disturbance.  kshobayati iti kshobaNah.  SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is
bandhArhAn kshobayati iti kshobhaNah - One who creates tumult in the minds
of those who are fit to be bound in samsAra.  SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna is
that He creates vibration and agitation in purursha and prakr*ti
(consciousness or jiva-s and primordial matter) at the time of creation by
entering them.  He refers us to vishNu purANa in support - 

	"prakr*tim purusham caiva praviSya AtmeccayA harih         |
	  kshobhayAmAsa sarga-kAle vyayAvyayI          ||  (V.P. 1.2.29)

An alternate interpretation, supported by SrI satyadevo vAsisshTha, SrI
cinmayAnada, etc., is that He is kshobaNah because He keeps the beings in
the Universe vibrant by being their antaryAmi and constantly keeping them in
motion.

377. devah - He who sports Himself.

om devAya namah.

dIvyati krIDati iti devah.  He plays with the jiva-s by binding them with
mAyA or prakr*ti.   SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham - pala
pala mAya mayakkukkaLAl inburum iv-viLaiyATTuDaiyAn (tiruvAimozhi 3.10.7).
A similar concept is expressed in nAma 312 (nahushah), 335 (Adidevah), etc. 

SrI cinmayAnanda points out that the term dIvyati means "to shine', 'to
conquer',  ' to praise', etc.   SrI Sankara includes the play of creation,
the desire to conquer the enemies of gods, functioning in all beings,
shining in all beings, being praised by the holy men, pervading all, etc.,
as the reasons for His being the only deva.  He quotes the SvetAsvatAra
upanishad - eko devah sarva bhUteshu gUDhah (6.11) - There is only one God
who is hidden in all things that exist - in support.  

378. SrI-garbhah - a) He who has Lakshmi always with Him in His play as
devah.
		b) He who has Lakshmi in Him in the form of the Universe.
		c) He who is the abode of all auspicious qualities (SrI).

om SrI-garbhAya namah.

He is inseparably united with Lakshmi.  In His play as the deva He has
Lakshmi always as His companion.  vishNoh eshA anapAyinI - She is ever
inseparable from vishNu - vishNu purANa - 1.9.144.  SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam
is "bhoga-krIDA sahAyatvena vardhanIyA asya SrIh iti SrI-garbhah - He is
inseparable from SrI or Lakshmi in His sports.  SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers to
divya prabandham - kOla malarp  pAvaikku anbAgiya en appan - tiruvAimozhi
10.10.7.  

SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He has Lakshmi or aiSvarya in His
belly in the form of the Universe.  SrI cinmayAnanda gives the
interpretation that He has all the glories (SrI) in Himself, and so He is
SrI-garbhah.  

The dharma cakram writer points out that just as the wealth that a mother
protects carefully is the child in her womb, a stingy person protects his
wealth, and a j~nAni protects his knowledge, so also mahAvishNu protects the
Universe.  Just as the child cannot live independent of the mother, so also
the Universe can't exist without bhagavAn.  

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn is the antaryAmi inside
everyone in this Universe (SrI), and this is as if He is in the garbha of
the Universe, and so He is called SrI-garbhah.  

379. parameSvarah - The Supreme Ruler.

om parameSvarAya namah.

aiSvarya means Lordship.  BhagavAn is parameSvarah because He is the Lord of
all, including mahA Lakshmi - tiruvukkum tiruvAgiya SelvA - tirumozhi 7.7.1.

SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri derives the meaning from parA mA - paramA -
mahAlakshmi, One who is above all Sakti-s.  This paramA voluntarily seeks
the place in His vaksha-sthala and serves Him; thus He is paramAyAh ISvarah
- parameSvarah.

The dharma cakram writer indicates that just as a human being does well in
ruling over himself if he has full control of his indriya-s, BhagavAn is in
full control of al the beings as the parameSvarah or Ruler of the Universe.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an interpretation based on mA - SobhA.
parameSvarah thus indicates One who has Supreme SobhA.  One who has Supreme
SobhA, who is the Lord of this and also has full control of this, and
attracts and controls everything because of this, is parameSvarah - parA mA
yasya sa paramah. sa ca asau ISvarah parameSvarah.

380. karaNam - The Means.
381. The Cause - He who causes others to act.

om karaNAya namah.
om kAraNAya namah.

The two nAma-s are being looked at together here because of their close
relation.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derivation kriyate anena iti karaNam -
That by which or through whom an act is done.  BhagavAn is the only means
for attaining Him.  The eyes, ears, etc. which are the means of knowledge
are all aspects of this power of bhagavAn.   kAraNam is the Cause that makes
the beings act using the karaNa-s.

SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points us to pANini's words - sAdhaka-tamam karaNam -
karaNam is that which is the best among means or sAdhana-s.  He also reminds
us of the nAma "hr*shIkeSa" in this context - He who is the eeSa or Lord of
the indriya-s (the eyes, ears, etc. are the j~nAnendriya-s, and  the legs,
hands, etc. are the karmendriya-s). 

Beyond these indriya-s, there are the antah-karaNa-s which are the citta,
the mind, buddhi, and ahamkAra, which are also controlled by bhagavAn.  The
dharma cakram writer points out that for us to control the j~nAnemdriya-s,
the karmendriya_s, the antah-karaNa-s, etc., meditation on mahA-vishNu is
the means.  He also refers us to the gItA to point out that the way to
achieve this control is firm determination (vairAgya) and repeated training
(abhyAsa).

Following SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna, SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri distinguishes
karaNam from the next nAma - kAraNam, by interpereting karaNam as "primary
cause", and kAraNam as the supplementary causes.  BhagavAn is both the
primary cause as well as the supplementary causes in the creation.  He gives
the example of the creation of a mud pot from clay.  Both the clay and some
additional instruments are needed in this process.  But these alone will not
result in the mud pot, unless there is the involvement of the maker of the
pot.  BhagavAn is the reason for not only the primary cause but the other
causes as well.  SrI cinmayAnanda explains karaNam as "He from whom the
Universe arises", and kAraNam as "He who causes the Universe to arise". 

382. kartA - The Agent.

om kartre namah.

This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 317. There the interpretation by SrI
BhaTTar was based on paraSurAma incarnation, as the one who slayed the demon
kArta-vIrya.  In the current instance his interpretation is that bhagavAn is
the Agent who causes others to act. 

SrI cinmayAnanda quotes pANini - svatantrah kartA - One who freely and
independently performs the functions of creation, protection and
destruction, is the "Doer".  SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri points out that He is
kartA because without Him, the mere existence of the pa~nca bhUta-s etc.
could not have resulted in the Universe, just as the presence of clay etc.
without the presence of a pot-maker could not have resulted in the creation
of a pot.

Even though the jIvAtmA-s may think that they are independent in their acts,
nothing functions without His Will - avan anRi Or aNuvum aSaiyAdu.  BhagavAn
is the only svatantra kartA - One who acts independently of everything else.
SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAimozhi 5.6.4 - 

"SeikinRa kidi ellAm yAnE enRum   
	  SeivA ninRanagaLum yAnE enRum
	  Seidu mun iRandavum yAnE enRum
	  Seiyap payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum
	  SeivArgaLaic ceivEnum yAnE ennum .....

BhagavAn just does not stop with being the Agent, He also feels the effects
of the actions of the jIvAtmA-s as if they were His own.   vyasaneshu
manushyANAm bhr*Sam bhavati duhkhitah utsaveshu ca sarveshu piteva
paritushyati - When the people suffered, RAma suffered more than they did,
and when they were happy, He felt happy like a father.  After crowning
vibhIshNa, Lord rAma felt very fulfilled - kr*ta kr*tyah pramumoda ha

383. vikartA - a) He who undergoes modifications.
		b) He who created the world of varieties.

om vikartre namah.

a) vikurvANah vikartA.  In truth bhagavAn does not undergo any
modifications.  He is avikAra.  However, since the Universe is an extension
of Him, and since the Universe undergoes modifications constantly, it can be
said that He undergoes modifications.  He has no joy or sorrow that results
from His own act; but since He considers others' acts as His own and feels
one with the joys and sorrows of His creations, the resulting vikAra or
modification and feeling of joy and sorrow is for the sake of His creation.
Lord rAma did not experience joy when He was to be crowned, no did He feel
sorrow the next day when He lost it.

b) SrI Sankara's interpretation is that bhagavAn is the creator of this
varied Universe - vicitram bhuvanam kr*tavAn iti vikartA.  SrI rAdhakr*shNa
SAstri points out that His creation is vicitra because it is beyond
comprehension, and He did it out of His leelA.  No two things in His
creation are identical.  The dharma cakram writer points that in addition,
no two minds are same, no two faces are the same.  We don't know our past,
we don't know where we go after we pass away, nor how many more births we
will have to go through.  We go through birth after birth, and in each birth
we learn that the external pleasures are not real pleasures, but we don't
carry this memory and experience to the next birth.  Time does not leave
anyone behind, but we ignore this and try to immerse ourselves in the
pleasures of our indriya-s.  All these are the vicitra-s of His creation.

384. gahanah - He who is deep and inscrutable.

om gahanAya namah.

He is beyond our intellect and reasoning.  He is inside all of us, and yet
we don't  know Him.  yah pr*thivyAs tishThan yam pr*thivI na veda --He who
is in the earth but whom the earth does not know - br*hadAraNya upanishad
5.7.3.  He is in all the gods but the gods don't know Him - viNNavarkku
eNNal ariyAn - tiruvAimozhi 1.9.2 (v.v.rAmAnujan).   He is both the eye and
the object to be seen - cakshuSca drashTavyam ca nArAyaNah.  SrI
rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri refers us to kaThopanishad - tam durdarSam gUDham
anupravishTam guhAhitam gahvareshTham purANam - 1.21.

SrI Sankara points out that He is Unknowable in regard to His Nature,
capability or acts. 
The dharma cakram writer takes us through several instances in young child
kr*shNa's leelA-s to illustrate this point.  The gopikA vastrApaharaNam, the
instance of pUtanA, the lifting of the govardhana giri, the episode of being
tied by yaSodA by a rope, etc., illustrate our inability to understand Him
through our logic and rationale.  The only way to understand Him is through
devotion.

385. guhah - a)  The Savior.
	b) One who hides Himself effectively from non-devotees.

om guhAya namah.

gUhati rakshati iti guhah.  SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to
tiruvAimozhi - kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa perumAn - 2.2.9.  This is SrI
BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam.  SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri adds that this protection is
like that of a child protected by the mother when the child is in her womb.

SrI Sankara interprets the nAma based on gUhate samvr*Noti - He who hides
His Nature, and gives the reference to gItA - nAham prakASah sarvasya
yogamAyA samAvr*tah - 7.25.  SrI cinmayAnanda gives reference to vishNu
bhAgavta 10.37.11 - gUDho guhASayah sAkshI mahA purusha ISvarah - This Lord,
the Great Purusha, the witness who dwells in the vase most secretively.
MuNDakopanishad describes Him as "nihitam guhAyAm.  SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri
refers us to kaThopanishad 3.12 - esha sarveshu bhUteshu gUDhAtmA na
prakASate, and to gItA - 

avajAnanti mAm mUDhA mAnushIm tanuASritam    |
	param bhAvamajAnanto mama bhUta maheSvaram   ||  9.11  

Yet another interpretation, given by SrI R. anantakr*shNa SAstri, is that He
reclines in the heart (guhah) of all. 

-dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan