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From: Krishnamachari, N. (krish_at_ihmail1.ih.lucent.com)
Date: Tue Sep 02 1997 - 11:49:07 PDT

			Sri VishNu SahasranAmam - nAma 65 to 74.

65.  I(s)Anah - The controller

	By this name, BhagavAn is clearly distinguished from the bound souls,
released souls, and ever-free souls.  The name signifies that it is His
innate nature to keep all things under control under all circumstances.
The name is derived from the root I(s) - to command, to control, to
rule, to possess.

	The names I(s)vara and I(s)Ana are both derived from the root I(s).   I
was not able to understand how the word I(s)Ana is grammatically derived
 from its root, and what the special significance of this particular
variant is.  I would like to request any one who can elaborate on this
further to advise me.

66.  prANa_dah - The life-giver

	a) prANAn dadAti iti prANa-dah

	This gives the first example of how BhagavAn is the controller as
indicated in the previous nAma.
Sri Bhattar indicates that the life-giving function referred to here is
the act of BhagavAn in giving the strength to the nitya-sUris or
Ever-free Angels to visualize Him always, enjoy Him, and do service to
Him.

	Sri (S)ankara points out that in addition to the above interpretation,
the same name can be interpreted to mean that BhagavAn is also the taker
of the prANa - prANAn dyati iti - One who takes away the prANa or vital
airs at the time of death, or prANAn dIpayati iti - One who purifies and
brightens the vital airs. 

67.  prANah - Life.

	That which sustains is prANa - prANiti iti prANah.  That which has
prANa functioning in it is a prANI.  BhagavAn is PrANa because He
sustains the PrANi.  The name can also be understood as referring to
BhagavAn being the cause of the pRANA or life-impulse in the air that
sustains the life - in kenopanishad we find the Supreme defined as
prANasya prANah - the prANa of prANa itself. 

68.  jyeshThah - Older than the oldest.

	Vrddhatamo jyeshThah.  

	Brahma is called vrddha-tara since he is older than all other beings
that he created as a result of this function being entrusted in Him by
BhagavAn;  BhagavAn is vrddha-tama because He created Brahma, and is
thus older than Brahma.  Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that jyeshTHa is
the superlative of vrddha  (vrddha - aged; jyAyAn - more aged; jyeshTha
- most aged).

69.  (s)reshThah - Most praise-worthy.

	Pra(s)asyatamo (s)reshThah.

	(s)reshTha is the superlative of sreya - glorious.   It is to be noted
that the sequence of the three names above, prANa, jyeshTHa and
(s)reshTHa is the same sequence that occurs in the chandogyopanishad -
prANo vAva jyeshTha(s)ca (s)reshTHA(s)ca.

70.  prajApatih - Lord of the Ever-free Angels.

	PrakarsheNa jAyante iti prajAh, teshAm patih prajApatih - The leader of
those who have a glorious birth - the nitya-sUris, who are far superior
to the baddha and mukhta, or the bound and freed souls.

	An explanation which interprets the term prajA to mean all beings,
rather than the special class of Ever-free Angels, has also been
provided, and thus the meaning in this case will be Lord of all beings.

71.  hiraNyagarbah - He who is in a lovely Abode.

	The word hiraNya means golden.  Sri Bhattar interprets it as fitting or
lovely.  The word garbha means womb.  Sri Bhattar interprets it as the
Abode or Living Place.  Thus the meaning - One who is in a fitting or
Lovely Abode, viz. The Parama Padam.  Or, He is the garbha , or
originator, of hiraNya or gold, a term used to refer to all that is the
Object of fulfillment and joy.

72.  bhUgarbhah - One for whom the Earth is the object of protection.

	He is the protector of Mother Earth.  It can also mean One who has the
Universe in Himself - bhU garbhe yasya sah bhUgarbhah.  Or, He is the
garbha, or Originator, of the Universe.  BhU, which is His garbha, is
constantly and lovingly nurtured and nourished through His very Essence.

73.  mAdhavah -  a) The consort of MA or Lakshmi.
		b)  One who is attained through the madhu vidyA, or through 		
mauna, dhyAna, and yoga
		c)  The Lord of knowledge or the propounder of the knowledge 		     of
the Supreme Being.
		d)  One who is born in the race of Madhu, a yAdhava
		e)  One for whom there is no Lord (i.e., One who is the Lord of 		
everyone)
		f)  A silent observer, a maunee, 

	The nAma mAdhava occurs three times (nAma 73, 169, 741) in Sri VishNu
sahasranAmam, and different interpretations are offered in the three
contexts.  We will deal with all the different interpretations here, and
will refer back to this section for the future.

a) MAyAh dhavah mAdhavah - One who is the Lord or consort of MA or
Lakshmi.

	The concept here is that BhagavAn and (S)rI are eternally and
constantly associated with each other, and inseparable.   As if to
emphasize this, Sri Bhattar gives the detailed explanation for the
qualities of MA or Lakshmi under this name, rather than dwell on the
nAma MAdhava.

	In Brahma PurANa, we have

	"tat (s)aktih durjayA bhImA vishNu-(s)aktih iti smrtA   |
	  sarvabhUta hrdabjasthA  nAnArUpa dharA parA        ||
 	  prANAkhyA mantramAtA ca vi(s)vasya jananI dhruvA  ||

	"Her power is invincible and awe-inspiring and She is considered the
power of VishNu Himself.  She is the Supreme Being who lives in the
hearts of all beings of the universe and She is endowed with divine
forms.  Her name is prANa or life.   She is the Mother of all mantras,
and is the eternal Mother of the Universe".  It continues on to say that
She pervades the entire universe, moving and non-moving - jagat
carAcaram idam sarvam vyApya vyavasthitA.

	In Sri Lakshmi sahasranAmam, She is called the Supreme Prakrti who
possesses the six qualities (shAdguNya)- jnAna, bala, ai(s)varya, vIrya,
(s)akti, tejas.  She is the supreme, unique, and eternal (S)akti of
BhagavAn.  She is one with Him, and yet remains distinct like the
moon-light of the cool-rayed moon.  She pervades the Universe and is the
very embodiment of all (S)aktis.  She is endowed with all glory and
qualities, and is eternal.  Her dharma is the same as that of BhagavAn.
She is the life-giving (S)akti of all beings on earth.   These are
expressed in the following (s)lokas: 

	"mahAvibhUteh sampUrNa shAdguNya vapushah prabhoh      |
  		 bhagavad vAsudevasya nityaiva eshA anapAyinI       ||
 	  ekaiva vartate bhinnA jyotsneva himadIdhiteh                       |
 	  sarva(s)aktyAtmikA caiva vi(s)vam vyApya vyavasthitA         ||
  	 sarvai(s)varya guNopetA nityam taddharma dharmiNI             |
  	 prANa(s)aktih parA hyeshA sarveshAm prANiNAm bhuvi       ||

	The secret of the true nature of MA is thus summarized - (s)raddhayA
devo devatvam a(s)nute - Madhava gets His Lordship because of His
association with MA or Lakshmi.

b)  One who is attained through the madhu vidyA, involving mauna,
dhyAna, and yoga.

	The support for this comes from the mahAbhArata -

	"madhuvidyAvabodhatvAt dhavatvAdvA (s)riyo'ni(s)am        |
	  maunAd-dhyAnAcca yogAcca viddhi bhArata mAdhavam  ||
                                                                  (Udyog
a parva 68.4)

	Here, mA stands for mauna, dha stands for dhyAna, and va stands for
yoga.  He is experienced by the seeker who has stilled his mind through
mauna, dhyAna, and yoga practices.  Or, it can be said that He is
mAdhava because He is endowed with mauna, dhyAna, and yoga - He silently
observes the physical, mental, and intellectual activities of all
beings, and is ever the non-interfering Observer.

c)  The Lord of knowledge.  

	In this interpretation, mA stands for knowledge, and dhava is Lord.
The support for this interpretation comes from Harivam(s)a -

	"mA vidyA ca hareh proktA tasyA I(s)o yato bhavAn       |
	   tasmAd mAdhava nAmAsi dhavah svAmIti (s)abditah  ||   (Harivam(s)a
3.88.49)

	"O Hari!  You are the Lord (dhava) of mA (knowledge);  hence you are
named Madhava, the Master of mA".  

d)  madhukule jAtatvAt mAdhavah - One who is born in the race of Madhu,
a yAdava.

e)  mA dhavah yasya sa mAdhavah - One for whom there is no other Lord.
This interpretation is included as one of the explanations for this name
by ThirukkaLLAm sri NrsimharAghavAchAriAr in his bhAshya on Sri Bhagavad
GItA.

f)  One who is the Silent Observer - this is discussed under item b)
above.

74)  madhusUdhanah - The slayer of the evil demon called Madhu.

	In the MahAbhArata we have the following -

	"vishNu karNodbhavam cApi madhu nAma mahAsuram      |
	   ....
	  tasya tAvadvadhAdeva deva dAnava mAnavAh                  
  madhusUdhana ityAhur-rshaya(s)ca janArdanam                ||
(MahAbhArata 2.63.13)

	"Because Sri VishNu destroyed the mahAsuran by name madhu, He is called
MadhusUdhana by the sages, devas, asuras, and men".

	Sri ChinmayAnanda indicates that madhu is a term used in vedAnta to
refer to the fruits of actions.  Since BhagavAn destroys the effects of
the fruits of actions of those who meditate on Him, He is madhusUdana. 

-dAsan krshNamAchAryan