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RE-Yuga Clarifications
Date: Wed Oct 24 2001 - 21:37:15 PDT

Dear Bhagavathas,

Sriman Sriram noted inconsistencies in my previous posting on this subject.
I thank him for that. I apologize for the doshams. Those inconsistencies were 
in the source I used and I just did not look deligently. one problem is KALPA 
is used for
both day time, nigh time as well as whole (day and night included) of brahma. 
This I discovered from a more authentic source. This is by an erudite Sri 
Vaishnava scjolar Sri Srinivasa Gopalacharya. We used to refer to him as the 
Dictionary Srinivasa Gopalacharya. He is also form the village of Hedatale 
(Just as Sri Ranga Priya Swamy). He spent over 30 years compiling an 
encyclopediac dictionary  of Sanskrit (to Kannada). It is  in 6 volumes in 
all and I have the first five (sixth one was out of print). Most of the 
information I wanted on this subject, as well as many more intersting 
information was readily available. Thanks to this scholar,
our sankalpam ( Dviteeya Parardhe,  Svetavaraha kalpe, Vaivasvata Manvantare,
Kali yuge....... makes more sense than ever to me). I am here with presenting
the information here. I have translated to the best of my ability from 
Pardon the length. I hope you find it useful and interesting. By the way, Sri 
Srinivasa Gopalachar attained Paramapadam recently.

Yuga: A measurement of time in Hinduism. There are four Yugas

Krita or Satya Yuga : 1, 728,000 human years (Golden Age)
Treta Yuga              : 1,296,000 human years (Silver Age)
Dvapara Yuga          :   864,000  human years (Brass Age)
Kali Yuga                :   432,000  human years (Iron Age)
Total human years for chatur yuga is 43, 20,000

The age reference in the parenthesis is as per the Western scholars. As far 
as we are concerned, it would suffice to say that the metals indicate the 
degree of dharma- zenith(Gold) to nadir (Kali).

One human lunar month (28 days) is equal to 1 day  for pitre devathas.
One human Solar year (360 days) is equal to 1 day for devas.
Krita Yuga is 4,800 divine years
Treta Yuga is 3,600 divine years
Dvapara Yuga is 2,400 divine years
Kali Yuga is 1,200 divine years.
Total divine years for CHATUR YUGA (also called  MAHA YUGA) is 12,000.

One sixth of the time for each yuga is sandhya (gap) period.
If we substract this figure, then
Krita Yuga is a span of 4000 divine years, Treta is 3000 divine years,
Dvapara is 2000 divine years and Kali is 1000 divine years.

One thousand Maha yugas (that is 1,20,00,000 divine years or 4,32,00,00,000 
human solar years) is the day time (ahah) of Brahma. Night (raatri) time of 
brahma is also of the same period. Thus a day of Brahma(day and night, 
aho-raatri) is 8,64,00,00,000 human solar years (2.40,00,000 divine years).  
This ONE DAY of Brahma is called KALPA. There are 864,00 seconds in our day. 
Thus Kalpa is a simple multiple of this figure.

Day time ( that is for a span of 432,00,00,000 human years) is srishti  or 
creative work) and night time  (that is 432,00,00,0000 human years) is 
pralayam or layam  (dissolution).
During the day time of Kalpa, 14 Manus rule the earth and 14 Indras rule the 
heaven. Thus, Kalpa (day time) equals 14 Manus. Each Manu rules for a span of 
71 maha yugas (In between two successive Manus, there is a Sandhya period 
equal to 0.4 Maha Yuga). 
Thus it verifies: 1 Kalpa= 14 x 71 + 15*x 0.4 =1000 Mahayugas.
The span of each Manu's rule is called MANVANTARA.

The 14 Manu's (Manu is not name of a person. but name of position, like the 
President)and the corresponding Indras (shown in the parenthesis) are as 

1. Svaayambhuva (Yajna)
2. Svaarocisha (Rocana)
3. Uttama (Satyajit)
4. Taamasa (Trishikha)
5. Raivata (Vidhu)
6. Caaxusha (Mantradhruma)
7. Vaivasvata *(Purandara)
8. SaavarNi (Vairocana)
9. Dhaxa SaavarNi (Shruta)
10. Brahma SaavarNi (Shambhu)
11. Dharma SaavarNi (Vaidhyata)
12. Rudra SaavarNi (Retudhaama)
13. Deva SaavarNi (Divaspati)
14. Indra SaavarNi (Shuci)

We are currently under the period of the seventh Manu, Vaivasvata.
Thus in the sankalpam, we say, Vaivasvata Manvantare (in the reign of 
Vaivasvata).  This Manvantara (just as any Manvantara),  spans for a total 
period of  71 Maha Yugas.  Of this 27 Mahayuga are over.  We are in the 28 th 
Mahayuga, in which the first three Yugas Krta, treta, Dwapara are completed.  
The fourth Kali Yuga is currently running.  Kaliyuga commenced at the 
mid-night between 17 th and 18 th February of 3102 BC. That means only 5102 
years have so far elapsed in the Kaliyuga.  There was a flood prior to the 
beginning of Kaliyuga. (Note: The age of earth predicted from the Bible is 
5754 years. The Bible talks about a flood during Noah's time who is eighth 
generation from Adam, the first man, according to the Bible. To me these 
periods appear more than a coincidence.  We can reconcile this coincidence by 
assuming that the Jewish tradition is referring to  beginning of this Kali 
Yuga as THE beginning). 
The Mahabharatha war took place 34 years prior to the beginning of Kali Yuga. 
Thus the great war took place approximately 5136 years ago.  

One year of Brahma is 360 Kalpas . This  comes to 
8,64,00,00,00 divine years or 31,10,40,00,00,000 human solar years.
Just like ours, Brahma's LIFE SPAN is also 100 years, which is 
864,00,00,00,000 divine years or  31110,40,00,00,00,000 human solar years. 
This is called PARA. 

This means Brahma emnates from the lotus that grows out of Navel of VishNu 
and lives for 31110,40,00,00,00,000 human solar years. 

Brahma has completed first half (50 years)of his life and is into second half 
(Dviteeya Parardhe- we recall this in the sankalpam). To be precise he ha 
scompleted 50 years, 25 days and is in the first yama of day 26 (Svetavaraha 
kalpa). Sorry, we missed his birth day by a little over 25 days ( I mean 25 

Ref: Sanskrit-Kannada Dictionary by   Sahitya Vidvan  U.Ve Chakravarti 
Srinivasa Gopalacharya).
(Note: He just passed away few months ago). 
 For  age of earth predicted from Bible: quoted in "Orthodox Jews making 
dinosaur ads extinct" -Knight-Ridder News Service, Cincinnati Enquirer 
(sometime in 1993)


K. Sreekrishna Tatachar

           - SrImate rAmAnujAya namaH -
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