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The gist of Sri Bhashyam on Chatussutri by Dr.NSA.--Part 7.

From: padmini ranganathan (
Date: Sat Nov 20 1999 - 22:11:46 PST

LAGHU SIDDHANTA : Small Siddhanta:

1.Nescience is not terminated by the knowledge of the
 meaning of the Upanishadic statements.

    We say that your view that termination of
is Moksha and that will happen from the knowledge of
Brahman is alright.But,we have to examine the nature
of the knowledge of Brahman.Is it merely Vakyartha
Jnana or knowledge of meditation derived from the
meaning of the Vedanta Vakyas?

Knowledge of the Vedanta texts is not the means to
Moksha.Because there is no need to prescribe this.That
meaning is evident even when it is not prescribed.

    You cannot argue that the Vedanta texts do not 
produce knowledge that destroys avidya when
is not dispelled.You cannot say that the continuance
Bheda Jnana is no fault even in the event of the know-
ledge of the Vedanta texts.You cannot say that as the
root of ignorance is destroyed,it will not bind to

Because it is impossible to say that knowledge does
not arise when its means,that is,the Vedanta texts
veying knowledge are once present.It is seen by
ence that knowledge certainly arises when competent
people teach and when there are inferential marks even
when there is some antigenastic imagination.You cannot
argue that on account of a little of beginningless
vasana, Bhedajnana or View of Plurality can continue
in spite of Vaakyartha Jnana.If it continues like that
it can never be destroyed.You cannot say that
Bhedajnana which is the effect of vasana continues
even though the root of Ajanana is destroyed.In the
case of the perception of the double moon not having
destroyed by knowledge of a single moon it must be
understood that it is due to a real defect of the
eye.Therefore,it is to be agreed that mere Vakyartha
Jnana is not the destroyer of ignorance.

2(a)Meditation or Upasana is the means to Moksha.

    Therefore, the means to Moksha is something other
than Vakyartha Jnana and that is meditation or Upasana
that is prescribed in scriptures in a number of
All terms like
are signifying the means of Upasana or meditation.

     Vedana and Upasana are synonyms and this Dhayana
is a steady rememberance that is an unceasing flow of
rememberance of the object of meditation like flow of 
oil.The scriptural passages prescribe this as the
to Moksha.

  (b) This Upasana is of the form of a vivid
of the object of meditation.

     The remembrance will attain the character of
seeing an account of intensity of reflection.

     Such remembrance of the character of seeing is
prescribed by the scriptures as the means to


      The Vakyakara explains all this clearly.He dec-
lares that  (1) Vedana is Upasana (2) He establishes
that repetition of the steady remembrance is
prescribed by the scriptures as Moksha Sadhana.
The Vakyakara has therefore declared that such remem-
brance repeated more than once steadily is the means
to Moksha.


    The self cannot be gained,says the Upanishads,by
the study of Veda nor by thought nor by hearing.It
declaresthat he alone gains the Supreme whom That
choses. God choses one who is dear to him.Who is dear
to God? One for whom God is dear is dear to Him.So it
is established here that this kind of steady
remembrance is of  the form of Supreme Love towards
e) This steady remembrance is called Bhakti :-

The word Bhakti is synonymous to Upasana. THe
scriptures describe that one transcends death by
knowing Him thus. It is only knowledge in the form of
having meditation which  is to be practised daily and
continued upto death that is the means to Moksha. This
exclusive devotion is the same as Upasana.

3.The means to steady remembrance :-

Yajna and other Karmas are Sadhanas or means to this
kind of steady  remembrance. Though the scriptures use
the term 'desire to know' it must be understood that
the intention is the attainment of Vedana or Upasana
that is the object of desire. This kind of Vedana 
itself is the means of reaching Brahman. Therefore all
karmas are to be done throughout life only for the
purpose of gaining such knowledge of Upasana.

4. The Vakyakara's exposition of the means or Sadhana
to steady  remembrance :-

The Vakyakara declares that there are seven means for
attainment of Upasana or steady remembrance. He has
explained them also with examples. They are :

1.VIVEKA: (keeping the body clean)

Sustaining on food that is not impure-
Impure either owing to species (jAti)or Ashraya
(abode) and Nimitta (accidental cause).

2. VIMOKA - Freeing the mind from desire.

The Upanishad says that one should have no attachment
to desire and he must meditate with a calm mind.

3.ABHYASA :- Repetition (continued practice).

One should always think of That.

4. KRIYA :- Works.

Performance according to one's ability the Pancha Maha

5.KALYANA :- Virtuous conduct.

There are virtues like fruitfulness, honesty,
kindness, liberty, gentleness and absence of

6. ANAVASADA : want of cheerfulness.(freedom from

On account of the remembrance of unfavourable
conditions, one may feel dejected but a Sadhaka should
pull himself up and he must give up dejection.

7.ANUDDHARSHA :- (absence of exaltation).

In the way of meditation, this kind of too much of
satisfaction is also an obstacle. One should give up

Upasana is generated from KarmAnushThAna (practice of

The scriptures designate the Varnashrama dharma by the
term 'Avidya' in 'IshAvAsyOpanishad'and denotes that
the Ashrama dharma must be performed for origination
of Upasana.

There are karmas that are obstacles  to the
origination of Upasana and they are to be destroyed by
performance of the ordianed  varnashrama dharmas. Then
alone he will be able to resort to Upasana by means of
which he can attain Brahman.

As explained above, the knowledge of meditation or
Upasanatmaka Jnana, that is a means to the attainment
of Brahman, requires the performance of all Ashrama
dharams. So it is necessary to make an enquiry into
Karma  for ascertaining the nature of Karma required
and also to know the transitoriness and limitation of
the Karmas.

So, therefore, it is concluded that an enquiry into
Karma is an antecedent to Brahma Jijnasa.

Nityanityavastuviveka and others (descrimination of
permanent and non-permanent things) cannot be
accomplished without a study of Karma Mimamsa.

It is to be pointed out that the four Sadhanas such as

Nityanityavastuviveka and others will not become
possible without a study of Karma Mimamsa. The true
nature of Karma, the fruits of Karma, the
transitoriness or otherwise of the results of the
eternality of the Atman and things like this cannot be
known without the study of Karma Mimamsaa. All these
things are described in Karma Mimamsa. Such works are
related to meditation of Udgeetha that is of the
nature of Brahman, are also to be known. When those 
karmas are done without any desire for the fruit, they
together with an enquiry into Brahman and such
meditation presupposes knowledge of the nature of
Karma. Therefore, it is to be concluded
that an enquiry alone into Karma leads to the Sadhana


Therefore, it is decided that Karma Vichara is a
pre-requisite to Brahma Vichara.


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