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SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 43 - Part 1.

From: Krishnamachari, N (Krish) (nkrish_at_lucent.com)
Date: Wed Nov 04 1998 - 15:08:01 PST

			SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 43.

		rAmo virAmo virato mArgo neyo nayo'nayah      |
		vIrah SaktimatAm-SreshTho dharmo dharmavid-uttamah   ||

om rAmAya namah
om virAmAya namah
om viratAya namah
om mArgAya namah
om neyAya namah
om nayAya namah
om anayAya namah
om vIrAya namah
om SaktimatAm-SreshThAya namah
om dharmAya namah
om dharma-vid-uttamAya namah

396. rAmah - a) He who delights others.
		b) He in whom everyone delights.

om rAmAya namah

There are two obvious interpretations for this nAma.  One is that all the
yogi-s revel in His charm - ramante yoginah asmin iti rAmah.  SrI Sankara
gives reference to pAdmapurANa - ramante yoginah anante nityAnande cidAtmani
- The yogins revel in Him who is Eternal Bliss, Pure Consciousness and
Endless.

The other is that He who has a compelling charm about Himself and He who is
most Handsome - ramayati itit rAmah.   SrI BhaTTar gives several references.
rAmo ramayatAm SreshThah - rAma is the foremost among those who delight the
minds of all people (rAmAyaNa - ayodhyA 53-1); guNAbhirAmam rAmam ca - rAma
who is filled with kalyANa guNa-s (mahAbhArata sabhA 58-42); tathA
sarva-prajA kAntaih prIti sanjananaih pituh |  guNaih viruruce rAmah dIptah
sUrya iva amSubhih || - rAma who is liked by His citizens, who brings
happiness to His father,  and who is full of klayANa guNa-s, shone like the
Sun with its intense and bright rays - ayodhyA 1.33.   In tiruppAvai, ANDAL
calls Him manatukku iniyAn.  His form is such that even His enemies get
attracted to it.  Even though mandodari and vAli's wife are not in the
categories of enemies of rAma, they were both realized His divine Nature
when they saw Him with their husbands dying or dead.  SrI v.v.rAmAnujan
refers to SUrpanakA's description of rAma and lakshmaNa - taruNau rUpa
sampannau sukumArau - puNDarIka viSAlAkshau....

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha and SrI v.v.rAmAnujan both refer to the root ramu -
krIDAyAm - He who derives pleasure out of His leelA-s, or He who makes
everyone happy because of His krIDA as part of His krIDA, is rAma. 

The dharma cakram writer adds that there are two kinds of delight- delights
of this world which have sadness associated with them always as a
consequence, and the delight pertaining to the enjoyment of para brahmam
which has pure lasting happiness associated with it.  rAma is the source of
the later kind.  The writer refers us to Sabari's holding on to life only to
have the darSan of rAma, the r*shi-s who delighted themselves in the sight
of rAma, and the gopi-s and gopAla-s who had bhagavad-anubhavam by being
with kr*shNa in AyarpADi.   

SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri reminds us that it is sage vasishTha, the kula guru
of daSaratha's family, that gave the name rAma to daSaratha's first son.

397. virAmah - a) He before whom all become powerless.
		b) He who is the final goal of everyone.

om virAmAya namah.

SrI BhaTTar has explained the nAma as follows:  viramyate asmin varapradaih
brahmAdibhih, varaiSca avadhyAdibhih, labdha-varaiSca rAvaNAdibhih iti
virAmah - Before rAma all become powerless, including the likes of brahma
who grant the boons, the boons themselves of indestructibility even by
death, and people like rAvaNa who acquired the boons by their austerities.
He quotes rAmAyaNa in this context - brahmA svayambhUh caturAnano vA ...
(Sundara kANDa 51.45), where hanumAn advises rAvaNa to understand rAma's
prowess.  

SrI Sankara gives the explanation that He is the final resting place or goal
of all beings - virAmah avasAnam prANinAm asmin iti virAmah.  SrI
rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri refers us to rAmAyaNa wherein we find that those who
have seen rAma or have diverted their thoughts on Him do not even try to get
out of this mode.  

na hi tasmAt manah kaScit cakshushI vA narottamAn     |
narah SaknotyapAkrashTum atikrAnte abhi rAghave      || (rAmA 2.18.13) 

SrI cinmayAnanda explains that He is the final resting place because having
reached Him there is no return into the realm of experiences.  He also
points out that some vyAkhyAna kartA-s interpret the meaning as "He in whom
the world of plurality merges during the deluge or pralaya".  

The dharma cakram writer comments that until the soul reaches Him i.e.,
attains moksha, there is always re-birth, and  He is the final resting
place, attaining which alone one can rest finally.  So this nAma should
remind us that the final goal is mahA vishNu, and teach us to meditate on
Him.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha nicely relates the two nAma-s,  rAma and virAma.
ramante asmin iti rAmah, viramanti asmin iti virAmah - One in whom people
delight is rAma,  and One in whom people find final SAnti is virAma.  The
source of delight is also the end of delight - yatra ramaNam tatra ramaNa
avasAnam.  He is the Creator and He is also the one who ends the creation.
This is the same principle involved in the body being formed from the pa~nca
bhUta-s and dissolving back into the pa~nca bhUta-s, the sun rising in time
and settling back in time, etc.   He gives numerous references to the
Sruti-s to support this interpretation:

	tasmin idam sam ca vicaiti sarvam sa otah protaSca vibhuh prajAsu
(yajur 32.8)
	
	yo mArayati prANayati yasmAt prANanti bhuvanAni viSvA (atharva
13.3.3)

	kAlenodeti sUryah kAle niviSate punah (atharva 19.54.1)

	yatrAmr*tam ca mr*tyuSca purushe'dhi samAhite (atharva 10.5.17)

398. virajo-mArgah - One who shows the faultless path.

om viratAya namah - The Unattached
om mArgAya namah - He who is sought after
om virajo-mArgAya namah - He who shows the flawless path

There is some confusion here as to whether this is to be interpreted as one
nAma (virajo-mArgah), or as two separate nAma-s.  SrI SrInivAsarAghavan
discusses  the terms viratah and mArgah separately but lists them under the
same number, and also indicates that virajo-mArgah is the form when the nAma
is considered as one nAma.  SrI aNNa~ngarAcArya and SrI v.v.rAmAnujan list
viratah (virajah) and mArgah as two separate nAma-s.  The difference in
numbering which started with Slokam 34 (ishTo'viSishTah vs. ishTah and
aviSishTah) between these two sets of interpretations continues up to this
nAma, where it synchronizes again.  
   
bhagavAn is viratah because the spirit of detachment is natural to Him.
vigatam ratam asya vishayasevAyAm iti viratah - One in whom the desire for
pleasure in objects has ceased.  When He lost the kingdom it did not deprive
Him of His splendor just as the night cannot take away the loveliness of the
cool-rayed of the moon.

	"na cAsya mahatIm lakshmIm rAjya nASo'pakarshati          |
	  loka-kAntasya kAntatvam SItaraSmeriva kshapA            ||
(ayodhyA 19.32)

sItA pirATTi's own words are: "When SrI rAma abandoned the kingdom under the
plea of dharma, and led me to the forest where I had to move on foot, there
was neither disappointment nor grief, nor fear in rAma".

	"dharmApadeSAt tyajataSca rAjyam
	  mAm cApyaraNyam nayatah padAtim        ||  (sundara 36.29)

SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out that another instance of this detachment is
that He did not have the faintest desire to have any part of SrIlankA for
Himself which he won in the battle with rAvaNa. He also gives references to
prabandham:  pArALum paDar Selvam bharata nambikkE aruLi arum kAnam
aDaindavan (perumAl tirumozhi 8.5); iru nilattai vENDAdE viraindu
venRimaivAyakaLirozhindu tEr ozhindu mAvozhindu vanamE mEviya em irAman
(perumAL tirumozhi 9.2). 

Some versions have this nAma as virajah (rajo-rahitah).  SrI cinmayAnanda
gives the interpretation that He is without the rajas or agitation of the
mind, and so He is virajah (passionless).  He is the embodiment of Pure
sattava guNa.  

The dharma cakram writer points out that the difference between us and
bhagavAn is this - that we are attached and He is detached.  He refers us to
tirukkuraL:

		paRRuga paRRaRRAn paRRinai appaRRaip-
		paRRuga paRRu viDaRkku.

The significance of this nAma is that we should learn to be detached by
meditating on this nAma of bhagavAn.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has composed one Slokam for each nAma to explain the
nAma's significance, and thus there are 1000 Sloka-s of his own in
explanation of the 1000 nAma-s.  I am including his Slokam for the current
nAma as an example:

	"rajo na tasmin na tamSca tasmin, sattva-svabhAvo hi sa vishNuruktah
|
	  so'sti svabhAvAt amita-prakASo, deve'sti gItah tamasah parastAt
||

mArgah - He who is sought after.

om mArgAya namah. mArgyate iti mArgah.  The word is derived from the root
mr*jU Suddhau, to cleanse.  He is the path for those who lead a life as laid
down in the SAstra-s.  SrI BhaTTar remarks that even sages like bharadvAja
sought after Him.  He is also the mArga because He is the only means (upAya)
to attain Him.  SrI Sankara quotes the taittirIya upanishad - nAnyah panthA
vidyateyanAya (3.13).  SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri gives reference to
br*hadAraNya upanishad - esha panthA brahmaNA hAnuvittah - 4.4.9).  Th
dharma cakram writer gives examples of paraSurAma, vAli,  rAvaNa, etc.,
where bhagavAn was the means for their realization of Him.

SrI BhaTTar also remarks that virajo-mArgah is the version when the two
words are combined as one nAma, and the meaning is that He is the One who
shows the flawless path.  SrI srInivAsarAghavan uses the nAma as
virato-mArgah and gives the meaning that He is the path that is sought after
even though He Himself is unattached.

399. neyah - He who lets Himself be governed (by His devotees)

om neyAya namah.

netA refers to one who leads.  neyah is one who is led.  SrI BhaTTar gives
the derivation - niyoga arhatvAt neyah.  niyogah means order.  One who is to
fit to be entrusted with the responsibility to command is also neyah.  SrI
BhaTTar gives the following references:  

"Ag~nyApyo'ham tapasvinAm" - I am agreeable to be commanded by those who
practice austerities - (rAmAyaNa AraNya 6.22); 

:niyunkshva cApi mAm kr*tye sarvam kartAsmi te vacah - Kr*shNa's words to
yudhisThira - You may ask me to do whatever you want; I shall certainly
carry out your behests (mahAbhArata anuSAsana 33.25);  

"ayam asmi mahAbAho brUhi yat te vivakshitam|  karishyAmIha tat sarvam yat
tvam vakshyati bhArata!   ||  - O Long-armed scion of the royal dynasty of
bharata! I am here ready to do whatever you want;  I shall carry out your
commands (mahA udyoga 71.5). 

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning as "One who is fit to be sought"
- prApyah prAptum yogyah, or "One who is not attainable through any pramANa
except by contemplation, meditation, and devotion" - sarva prmANa
avishayatvAt sa manasA netum arhah = mantum yogyah mananIyo bhavati.  The
key phrase is netum arhah neyah. 

To be continued......

-dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan