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From: V. Sadagopan (75041.3037_at_compuserve.com)
Date: Wed Nov 22 1995 - 14:26:19 PST
CHAPTER 5:THIRD SHATKAM (GITA CHAPTERS 13-18) ************************************************************** THIRTEENTH CHAPTER OF GITA: KSETHRA -KSHETRAJNA VIBHAGA YOGAM (THE DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN BODY(KSHETRA) AND THE ONE WHO KNOWS ABOUT IT (KSHTRAJNA) Alavandaar"s masterly summary of this chapter takes this form: DEHASVARUPAMAATMAAPTIHETURAATMA VISODHANAM I BANDAHETURVIVEKASCCHA TRAYODASA UDHEEYATEH II In a key sloka of this chapter( 13. 34), Parthasrathy states that those with the eye of knowledge perceive the difference between the Kshetra (body and its attributes) and Kshetrajna (The Jeevatma that resides inside the body) .Such people obtain release from the bonds of Samsara. They are emancipated from the Mula Prakriti of beings as a result of their clear understanding of the relation between the Jeevatma and the Body and thus qualify themselves for Moksha. Alavandaar focusses on this key point. The literal translation of the Verse of Alavandaar is as Follows: " The essential nature of the Body,the means for Self-realization,the examination of the nature of the Self, the cause of bondage and discriminatory knowledge(relating to self and body) are (all) expounded in the thirteenth chapter. Parthasarathy also explains that whatever that is born in this Universe ,be it moving or stationary, arises from the union of Ksethra and Kshetrajna (13. 26). Alavandaar focusses on the message of the Lord , which deals with DEHASVAROOPAM, BHANDHA HETU,VIVEKAM RESULTING FROM AATMA VISODHANAM. Parthasarathy explained that Kshetram or Saareeram or body is the product of Pancha Bhoothas or five elements. The purpose of the body is to provide a theatre (Kshetram ) for the Jivan to experience the happiness and sorrow resulting from its accumulated Karmas. He explains further that Kshethrajnan stands apart from the body and to understand their differences ,one needs a noble code of conduct free from egotism and self-centeredness.By observing the humble way of life devoid of Ahamkaaram and Mamakaaram, one overcomes the Sareeraatma Brahmam (the delusion caused from ignorance about the body and jivan) and attains Moksham (freedom form the cycles of Births and Deaths) . The Vivekam (Discriminatory intelligence) to recognize the Jivan as distinct from the body made up of Pancha Bhoothas (five elements) and Mula Prakrti has been expained as the discrimination between Ksetram and Kshetrajnan, a key step to attain the goal of Moksham. Swami Desikan translates closely Alavandaar"s sanskrit slokam into Tamil in his summary. His verse is as follows: OONIN PADIYUM UYIRIN PIRIVUM UYIR PRUVAAR JNANAM PERUVAHAIYUM JNANAM EENRA UYIR PAYANUM OON NINRATHARKU ADIYUM UYIR VERIDUM ULL VIRAHAUM THEHN NINRA PAADAN TELIVITTHANAN SILAIPAARTHANUKKEH Here, OONIN PADI stands for Deha Svaroopam, the word used by Alavandaar to describe the nature of the body(Kshetram) made up of Pancha Bhoothas,three tatvaas (Prakrti, Mahaan and Ahankaaram ). This body becomes the house for the eleven Indriyas: Five karma Indriyas(, Five Jnaendriyaas and Manas. There the Dharma Bhootha Jnanam distorts to accomodate desire, hate, pleasure and pain. The purpose of the body (Kshetra) is to provide a house for the Jivan to experience Sukham and Dukkham. By the Choice of UYIRIN PIRIVUM, Swami Desikan refers to Kshetrajnan , who is the eternal Jivan. Through the third group of words, Swami Desikan uses to describe the way in which the discriminatory knowledge about the distinction between the perishable body and the eternal Jivan is ganed.There are twenty ardous steps to gain the Vivekam , that sets one free by the knowledge that the Kshetra is distinctly different than Kshetranjaa. These steps are : 1. Modesty towards the learned inspite of one being blessed with Education, Heritage and wealth 2. Doing Duties prescribed by Saastraas without expectation of praise from others for doing them 3. Ahimsa practise (not hurting others) by speech, thought or body 4. Equanimity towards even those, who cause pain 5. Consistency between thought and deed in dealings with others. 6. Long and devoted service to the Acharya from whom he receives clarifications on the true nature of Jivan and its diferences from the Body 7. Practise of the cleanliness of the mind by chasing desires; cleanlines of speech through telling truth (Satyam); cleanliness of the Body by not eating foods prohibited by the saastraas. The obtainment of cleanlinessa t the above three levels. 8. Clarity of mind arising from a clear understanding of the meaning of the Vedas and Upanishads without the admixture of thoughts not sanctioned by them ( Incorrect intrepretations provided by other philosophies). 9. Turning the mind from its natural tendency to run after myriad things and making it focus on the Jivan or Kshetrajnan 10. cultivation of Fear to engage in thoughts causing greif arising from such strayings of the mind 11. Removal of delusion (sareeraatma Bramam) caused by misidentifying Jivan with Body and the Mamakaaram due to a sense of false ownership of Jivan as one"s own , which really belongs to Paramatma. 12. Constant reflection about the unavoidability of birth, death, old age, disease and the sorrow arising from them , while in the Jivan resides in the Body. 13. Detatchment from objects that appear to be one's own and focussing only on the Jivan 14. Attachment to Children, Wife/Husband, property only to the extent prescribed by the Saastaas 15. Equanimity of mind regarding happiness and sorrow relating to one's children et al. 16.Devotion to Sriman Narayana alone (Ananya Devata Bhakti) 17. Stay at places devoid of huge crowds 18. fear of the People,, who do not have Sattwa Guna 19.Unceasing thoughts on Jivan and its true nature 20.Engagement in deeds that increase such knowledge These are the twenty Saadhanas to gain Aatma Sakshaatkaaram or the cognition of the Jivan and its true nature. The remaining three points that Parthasarathy taught to Arjuna is covered by Swami Desikan through three choice group of words: Jnanam Eenra Uyir Payanum, OON ninratharku adiyum and Uyir Veridum Ul Virahum. The gaining of Discriminatory knowledge (Vivekam),the reasons for the Bandham or tight coupling to Samsara and the union of Both Body and the Jivan during the earthly existence inspite of their distinctness are covered by Swami Desikan through these three groups of Words. The comments of the other chapters will follow in the future postings. V.Sadagopan Yuva Samvatsara, Kartigai Masam: Sarva Amaavasyai , Visaaka Nakshatram.