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GS: Chapter 4: Second Shatkam

From: V. Sadagopan (75041.3037_at_compuserve.com)
Date: Sun Nov 19 1995 - 14:44:21 PST

CHAPTER 4: SECOND SHATKAM OF GEETHARTHA SANGRAHAM
*************************************************************************
 Chapters 7-12 are summarized by Alavandaar in his second Shatkam. After
condensing  the
 essence  of the first six chapters(Vishaada Yogam, Saankya Yogam, Karma Yogam,
Jnana- Karma- Sanyasa Yogam , Sanyasa Yogam and Dhyana Yogam ), Alavandaar
summarized the 
next six chapters in his second shatkam. The names of the  chapters of this
shatkam are Jnana--Vigyana , Akshara Brahma,Raja Vidhya-Raja Guhya,Vibhuti yogas
, Viswaroopa darsana Adhyaaya and Bhakti Yogam respectively.

THE SEVENTH CHAPTER :JNANA--VIGYANA YOGAM
***********************************************************

Alavandaar"s summary of the essence of this chapter emerged as the following
verse:

SVAYAATAATMYAM PRAKRITHYAASYA TIRODHI: SARANAAGATHI: I
BHAKTABHEDA: PRABUDDHASYA SRAISHTYAM SAPTHAMA UCHYATE II

Swami Desikan brings the thoughts contained in Alavandaar"s words  pregnant with
meaning           such as "Svayaataatmyam" and Prabuddhah:" through his own
brilliant Tamil Verse:

TAAN NINRA UNMAYAYAI TAN TANI MAYAYAI MARAITTHAMAYUM 
TAAN ANRI MAYAYAI TANAI TAVIRPAAN VIRAHU ARRAMAIYUM  I
MEL NINRA BHAKTARGAL NAALVARIL JNANI TAN  MENMAIGALUM 
TEHN NINRA SEM KAZHALAAN TELIVITTHANAN PARTHANUKKEH II

Swami Desikan states that the Lord with the feet that is beautiful like the
honey-laden Lotus 
clarifiedfor Arjunan his secret as the supreme being , distinct from
chetanam(Jeevan) and Achetanam (Inanimate) and yet containg them (Ucchishta
Brahma  or the Sesha-seshi principle of
Vedas).He explained further  that he is the cause of both chetanam and
Achetanam. They reach 
laya(union) inside Him. He is the abode of all auspicious attributes such as
Jnanam. He is the 
supreme Lord and the Maya (Prakriti made up of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas
attributes) of His 
hides his Glory  from the Chetanas. He pointed out that His Maya transforms into
body and the Karma  and Jnana Indriyas(faculties and Limbs).Thus Swami
Summarizedthe First half of Alavandaar"s verse onthe seventh chapter.
Then he goes on to say that the way to overcome ther Maya Of the Lord is to seek
refuge at 
His lotus feet. He elaborates further on the four kinds/groups  of people of
this world, who offer their 
worship to the Lord: (1)Aarthan (2) Arthaarthi (3) Jignyasu and (4) Jnanai. 

The first category (Aarthan) is represented by one ,who lost his material
wealth and wishes to get it back. The Arthaarthi wishes to obtain wealth for the
first time . The Jignyasu wishes to obtain pure Atma Svaroopam , free from
Prakriti an dworships the Lord for that boon. The fourth is the one dearest  to
the  Lord among all the four. They  all worship the Lord alone, but for
different reasons.These four categories are rare in the world  to begin with
compared to the majority, who 
do not even approach the Lord in a single  minded fashion.They worship other
lesser Gods  for 
meaningless gifts. The first threee attached to the Lord until their receive
their boons. The Jnanai however is steadfastly attached to the Lord.He does not
ask for any fruits for his devotion.The Lord also is extraordinarily  attached
to the Jnanai , who can not live for even one moment without HIM
Hence , the Jnani becomes as it were the life force of the Lord.Jnani
understands clearlly that 
the uniterrupted service to the Lord is the natural and true purpose of the
Jivan and offers his Saranaaagati to the Lord.This type of  status represented
by the Jnani is attained after many lives of
service to the Lord and is a rare status among the Chetanas . These thoughts of
Swami Desikan are the elaborations of the words of Alavanddar ,such as Bhakta
Bedah: ,Prabuddhaha: and 
Sraiyshtyam.

THE EIGHTH CHAPTER OF AKSHARA BRAHMA YOGAM
**************************************************************
Here, Alavandaar reclassifies the four group of  people , wo offer worship to
HIM into three groups.
He combines Aarthan and Arthaarthi in to a  single group called Eiswaryaartthis.
Those , who want  to regain  lost wealth and those , who want to attain wealth
for the first time are grouped as
the wealth seekers worshipping the Lord for.that purpose. The Jigyasu  seeking
Kaivalyam or
Aatma Sakshatkaaram (Enjoying the witnessing of the  ever-pure Atman without the
admixture of 
the Prakriti"s effects) and the Jnani together make up the triad , that includes
the Eiswaryaarthis.
Alavandaar continues to state that the Lord in the Eighth chapter the
priniciples to be learned and practised by the above three categories of
Worshippers to get HIs blessings. His summary of this 
chapter is as follows:

EISWARYAAKSHARA YAATAATMYA BHAGAVACCHARANAARTHINAAM I
VEDHYOPAADHEYA  BHAVAANAAM ASHTAMEH BEDHA UCHAYATEH II

Swami Desikan brillaintly elaborates on the essence of this sloka of his
poorvaacharya this way:

AARADHA SELVAMUM AARUYUIR KAANUM ARUM PAYANUM 
PERAADHU TANN KAZHARKKEZH AMARUM PERUVAZHTICHIGALUM 
SORAADHU UHANDHAVAR THOOMADHI KOLLUVATHUM SEYVANAVUM
TERA VISAYANUKKU THIRUNAARANAN SEPPINANEH 

Swami describes the  above three Adhikaaris as Soaadhu Uhandavar or those, who
want in 
fullness , their heart's desires (elected   purpose of their  lives). He
describes their tranquil and pure intellect as Thoomadhi, because their
intellects are centered on the Lord although for different boons. Swami
continues to observe that the Lord (Thirunaaranan) the codes  of conduct that
they have to observe  and the knowledge that they have to have to complete their
sadhanaas.

KNOWLEGE TO BE GAINED BY THE INDIVIDUALS OF THE THREE CLASSES OF BOON-SEEKERS
*********************************************************************************
*************************** 1.EISWARYAARTHIS: The Lord says that  this group of
people have to understand the principle of Adhibhutam, the understanding of the
perishable adjunct , which is different from and  yet depending  for its
existence on the self-conscious principle. The pancha Bhutaas like Aakasam
et al and the perishables like Sabdham, Sparsam,Roopam, Ghandham and Rasam
constitute
Adhibhutam.

2.KAIVALYAARTHIS: The members of this group has to understand Adhyaatmam
,Tatbrahmam &
Karmam . Achetana Prakriti is known as Adhyaatmam.  Tatbrahmam is the eternally
pure form of Atman(Jivan) rid of the blemishes of Prakrti and the Gunas derived
from it. Karma is the topic of
the third snd fourth chapters by the Lord.

3.MOKSHAARTHIS: They have to understand the principles of Adhidaivatam and
Adhiyajnam. 
Adhidaivata is the "universal self in its subtle aspect: the center from which
all living beings  have their sense-power". Adhiyajna is the presiding deity of
the sacrifice-Sriman Narayana. All the               three groups  have to
understand that it is the Lord, is the indweller of all Devas like Indra et al

and IT is He that receives the worship or Sacrificial offering. This principle
is known as Adhiyajnam
and the Lord is the Adhiyajnan.

OBSERVANCES TO BE PRACTISED BY THE THREE GROUPS
**********************************************************************

1.EISWARYAARTHIS: He must meditate on the Lord at all times without clash to the
prescribed 
duties detailed in Sastraas for each day. He should practise Bhakti Yoga at the
right time as 
his Sadhana progresses. This way , his mind will remain steady on the Lord. At
the time of his death, he should think of the Lord. His type of meditation of
the Lord as the possessor of one or other kind of wealth will give him the same
kind of wealth in the next life.

2.KAIVALYAARTHIS: He should control his senses of Faculty and action and
meditate on the Lord  seated in the "heart cavity".He should reflect on the
meaning of Pranavam and lift the the Praana(the vital current)  betwixt the eye
brows and  meditates with concentration and whole  will on the Lord.
One , who departs this way  practising this type of Anthima Smrithi(Last
rememberance) attains freedom  from Prakrti and enjoys the Ever pure Jivanand
realizes Atma Saakshaatkaaram.

3.MOKSHAARTHIS: He never lets his mind stray on to anything other than the
Lord.He will not bear the separation from the Lord even for a moment.The Lord
can not also bear any separation from 
the Jnani. The Lord will remove all the obstacles to Bhakti Yoga for such a
seeker and bless 
him with eternal Kainkaryam in Sri Vaikuntam for such an Adhikari.It is  the
Lord"s promise and 
responsibility to mkae that happen.      
       
THE NINTH CHAPTER: RAJA VIDHYAA RAJA GUHYA YOGAM
******************************************************************

Alavandaar summarizes the revelation of the   limitless of Glories of the Lord
by Parthasarathy Himself  to Arjuna and HIS  retention of the above attributes,
even in HIS  incarnations, where HE  becomes easily accessible (Sowlubhyam)  to
human beings that approach HIM as one of the four categories of beings mentioned
in the last chapter. He describes the nature of His Bhakthas and 
their Observances in theitr daily lives to illustrate their glory. The various
aspects of Bhakti Yoga are covered by Gitaaccharyan here.. Alavanddaar uses the
three word groups, "Svamahaatmyam", Manushyatve Paratvam" and  "Mahaatmaanaam
Visesha:"   to summarize the essence of the Ninth Chapter. Alavandaar"s Summary
is as follows:

SVAMAHAATMYAM MANUSHYATVEH PARATVAM CHA  MAHATMANAAM I
VISESHOH NAVAMEH YOGHO BHAKTIROOPA PRAKEERTHITA: II

Swami Desikan"s verse elaborating on the insightful summation  of Alavandaar is
as folllows:

TAN MENMAIYUM TAN PIRAPPIL TALARAA TANI NILAIYUM
PAN MENI NANNINAN PAAL PIRIYA ANBAR ASAIGALUM
PUNMENI VINNAVAR PAAL PURIYADHA TAN BATTIMAIYUM
NANMENI NAARANAN NARANUKKU NAVINRANENEH

 The words ,Tan Menmai describes the word  Svamahaatmyam chosen by Alavandaar.
He hides his svaroopam and becomes the indweller of the Chetans and Achetanam.He
also pervades them. 
Their form and protection is created by the Lord as a small part of HIS own
limitless attributes.HE aslo engages them to perform actions. HE accepts the
fruits of their efforts as HIS own.He         destroys  them all at the
beginning  of the  universal deluge by  absorbing them  and then creates  them
afresh after the end of the deluge. He becomes impartial  , since He gives the
rewards for each one based on their Karmas. He becomes easy to access during HIS
incarnations on this earth and yet does not shrink HIS auspicious qualities an
iota during those occasions. These are all part of  the limitless glories
(Mahatmyam) of the Lord, which He explains to Arjuna in the Ninth chapter..
 The rest of the Verse of Desikan and Alavandaar cover the services (Kainkaryas)
of the Lord-intoxicated Bhagavathas wanting the Experience  of the Lord
(Bhagavad Anubhavam) at all
times and places  The fruits of  Bhakti Yogam are then explained..The offerings
of anyone with pure heart to the Lord reaches HIM independent of the simplicity
of the offerings.He states that He accepts those  offerings full of devotion
with great joy. They summarize the Lord"s describtion of a typical Bhagavata
practising Bhakti Yoga to attain HIM with single minded devotion during their
term on HIS earth.  
  
TENTH CHAPTER: VIBUTHI YOGAM
*****************************************

Alavandaar summarizes the essence of the tenth chapter, this way:

SVAKALYAANAGUNAANANTHYAKRTSNASVAADHINATAAMATI: I
BHAKTYUTPATTIVIVRUTHYARTTA VISTEERNAA DASAMODHITA II

Swami Desikan elaborats on these thoughts this way:

YELLAI  ILADHA  TAN SEELAMAAM INAMUDHAKKADALUM 
YELLAI  ILADHA VIBHUTI YELAAM TANATHU AANAMAIYUM
YELLAIYIL  BATTI TANAI EZHUVIKKA THIRUVARULAAL
YELLAYIL   EESAN IYAMBINAN INDIRAN MAINDANUKKE

The Lord described to Arjuna HIS Limitless auspicious attributes resembling an
ocean of delectable nectar  and HIS suzeranity and Lordship over the entire
universe to Arjuna to generate
immeasurable Bhakti for HIM in Arjuna.The lord explains here HIS Swaroopam and
Swabhaavam to Arjuna to kindle and grow the Devotion in Arjuna.Those, who
practise Bhakti Yoga recognize HIS Limitless Kalyana Gunaas and HIM bein gthe
root cause of the existence  and operation of the 
Universe.They will not stay alive for even a second without experiencing HIM
.They will recite HIS 
stories, share it  with others and offer their service to HIM by Body, Mind and
Speech always. Their 
Bhakti will grow further and Further  and they will thus realize  the fruits of
Bhakti Yogam through 
such practises prescribed by the Lord Himself in this cjhapter.

ELEVENTH CHAPTER: VISWA RUPA DARSANAM 
******************************************************

Arjuna understood the teachings of the Lord that He is the indweller of all
Chetanas and Achetanas.
Thereafter, he wanted to see that Isvara form of Krishna, possesing omnipotence,
omnipresence,
infinite wisdom and compassion,strength ,virtue and splendor. He requested
Krishna to show that 
Isvara  form. The Lord Obliged and gave Arjuna the Divine Vision to see that
awesome and intimidating form full of power, energy and splendor.Arjuna saw that
form and was frightened by 
the sight of the whole Universe  and its manifold divisions  in the Isvara
form,including the moving and the unmoving . He offers his prayer to the Isvara
Form in moving words as follows:
"Thou art the Imperishable,the Supreme Being,the One Thing to be known.Thou art
the great refuge of this Universe. Thou art  the undying guardian of the eternal
dharma.Thou art the ancient Purusha.I see thee without beginning ,middle orend.,
infinite in power,of manifold arms;the Sun and the Moon thine eyes, the burning
fire Thy mouth ;heating the whole Unverse with thy Radiance. The
Space between heaven and Earth and  all the quarters are filled by Thee
alone;Having seen this, Thy marvellous and frightening  form, the Worlds are
terrified and So am I. Please take your gentle form again.". Lord accedes to
Arjuna"s request and takes the form of Arjuna"s freind and  Charioteer. The Lord
explained thereafter to Arjuna that any observance or Yaga or Alms giving, Homam
or penance or the study of Vedas without Bhakti  will not lead to Himor an
understanding of HIM or enjoyment of HiM. These discussions between Krishna and
His disciple  are covered by Alavandaar in his summary sloka on the eleventh
chapter this way: 

EKAADASEH SVAYAATAATMYA SAKSHAATKAARAAVALOKANAM I
DATTAMUKTAM VIDHI PRAABHYORBHAKTYEKAOPAAYATAA TATAA II     

Swami Desikan expanded on the verse of Alavandaar as follows:

ELLAAM TANKKU URUVAAI ILANGUM VAHAI TAAN URAITTHU
SOLLAL ARINDHU SORAAMAR KANDIDA VENDUM ENRA
VILLALANUKKU ANRU MEYKKANN KODUTTHU VERUM UNDOH
NALLARGAL KAANBHAR ENRU NAVINRAAN NANGAL NAYAKANEH

Arjuna requested that "Soraamar Kandida Vendum". He wanted to experience what he
learnt from
the Lord as His infinite form and attributes in all its fullness. The Lord
blessed Arjuna with that boon 
and then explained the unceasing  and single-minded Bhakti alone can understand
HIm and his attributes at the personal level.

TWELFTH CHAPTER: BHAKTI YOGAM
******************************************

In this chapter having 20 verses, Gitaachaaryan extolls  Bhakti Yogam as  aroute
to reach HIM and how enjoyable it is  during its practise. He states that  the
observers of Bhakti Yoga are dear to HIM> Alavandaar summarizes the essence of
this chapter this way:

BHAKTEH: SRAISHTYAMUPAYOKTHIRASAKSYAATMANISHTATAA I
TATPRAKAARASTVAPREETHIRBHAKTEH DWADASA UCHAYATEH II

ALAVANDAAR STATES THAT LORD KRISHNA  INSTRUCTED  ARJUNA ABOUT THE SUPERMACY OF
BHAKTI YOGA AND THE JOY  EXPERIENCED BY ITS PRACTIONERS .HE ALSO INFORMED ARJUNA
THAT THOSE ,WHO FIND IT DIFFICULT TO PRACTISE THE RIGOROUS BHAKTI YOGA 
CAN  ATTAIN HIM THROUGH THE PRACTISE OF AATMA DHYANAM  RESULTING FROM THE 
PRACTISE OF KARMA YOGA  AND AATMA SAKSHATKARAM THROUGH JNANA YOGA.

Swami Desikan echoed the thoughts of  Alavandaar throught he Following  verse:

TAN KAZHALIL BATTI TAAZHATATUM ATAN KAARANAMAAM
INGUNA SINTHAIYUM EEDHU ARIYAARKKU AVVADIMAIGALUM 
TAN KARMAMGAL ARIYAADHAVARKKU ILAHU NILAIYUM 
TAN KAZHAL ANBARKKU NALLAVAN SARRINAN PARTHANUKKEH

Swami Desikan says that the Lord pointed out the unfailing reward resulting from
the practise of Bhakti Yoga and the joy experienced in practising it. For those,
who find that practise ardous 
because of their incapabilities, The Lord instructed the practise of Nishkaama
Karma Yoga,
where one performs ones'duties without worrying about the fruits thereof to
qualify for the 
experience of Jnana Yogam. Renunciation of the fruit of all action ,as a means
of attainment of the Lord is extolled here for those , who are unable to tread
the rigorous route of Bhakti Yogam.

Yuva Krishna Paksha Dwadasi

V.Sadagopan