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SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam - Slokam 78 - Part 8.

From: Narasimhan Krishnamachari (champakam_at_yahoo.com)
Date: Fri Nov 22 2002 - 21:48:36 PST

    SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam - Slokam 78 - mA-dhavah.

741. mAdhavah – The Consort of Lakshmi.

Om mAdhavAya namah.

a)	The Consort of MA or Lakshmi
b)	The Bestower or Propounder of Knowledge about Himself.
c)	One Who is attained through the madhu vidyA.
d)	One Who is attained through mauna, dhyAna and yoga
e)	One Who is born in the race of madhu, a yAdhava
f)	The nAma that reveals the eternal relationship of the Mother and
Father with the rest of the Universe.
g)	One for whom there is no Lord above

The nAma mAdhavah occurs three times (nAma-s 73, 169, and 741).  The
description below extends the description given under nAma 73, with
additional information included.

a) mAyAh dhavah mA-dhavah – The Lord or consort of MA or Lakshmi.

The concept here is that BhagavAn and SrI are eternally and constantly
associated with each other, and inseparable.  As if to emphasize this,
SrI BhaTTar gives a very detailed explanation for the qualities of MA
or Lakshmi under this nAma, rather than dwell on the guNa-s of
bhagavAn.  In the end, he concludes with one sentence:  “The secret
about the true nature of SrI is that Lord VishNu gets His Lordship
because of His association with Lakshmi”.  All this detailed
explanation is provided by Sri BhaTTar under the very  first occurrence
of the nAma, in Slokam 8.  

SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the Sruti vAkhya-s which establish the
interpretation for a start:

   -      hrIScsa te lakshmISca patnyau (purusha sUktam) – Bhumi and
Lakshmi are Thy spouses
-	asyeSAnA jagato vishNu-patnI (nIlA sUktam) – Lakshmi, who is the
Ruler of this universe the spouse of VishNu.

Then he proceeds to explain the qualities of Lakshmi in the following
words:

AsyAh svarUpavat nitya-nirmala-rUpatvam, nirupAdhika paramaiSvaryAdi,
jagan-mAtRtvam, autpattiko bhagavat-sambandho nitya anapAyaSca ityAdi
tattvapareshu Sastreshu amaryAdam |  vedeshu tAvat SrI-sUktam, medhA
sUktam, uttara nArAyaNam, kaushItakI brAhamaNam ityAdau.

“The essential Nature of Lakshmi is described in the Sastras dealing
with the Supreme Reality as follows:  Her From is eternal and spotless;
 Her Supreme Rulership is not restricted by any limiting adjunct; Her
universal Motherhood, Her natural association with bhagavAn, are all
delineated in great detail in the SAstra-s.  In vedic literature, the
SrI sUkta, SraddhA sUkta, medhA sUkta, uttara nArAyaNa, kaushItakI
brAhamaNa and others deal with this subject”.   

Then SrI BhaTTar gives several references from the purANa-s etc., that
speak of the Supremacy of pirATTi, starting with the following
reference from SrI vishNu purANa:

	nityaiva eshA vishNoh SrIr-anapAyinI   |
	yathA sarvagato vishNuh tathaiveyam dvijottama   ||  (vishNu purANa
1.8.17)

“This Lakshmi is eternal, the universal Mother, and is ever in union
with VishNu.  Just as VishNu pervades all things, she also does, O best
of Brahmins”.  

In Brahma PurANa, we have

	tat Saktih durjayA bhImA vishNu-Saktih iti smRtA |
	sarva bhUta hRdabjasthA nAnArUpa dharA parA  ||
	prANAkhyA mantra-mAtA ca viSvasya jananI dhruvA   |
	devI bhinnA’njana SyAmA nirguNA vyoma eva hi    ||

"Her power is invincible and awe-inspiring and She is considered the
power of VishNu Himself. She is the Supreme Being who lives in the
lotus-like hearts of all beings of the universe and She is endowed with
diverse forms. Her name is prANa or life. She is the Mother of all
mantras, and is the eternal Mother of the Universe”.

	tathaivaikA parASaktih SrIh tasya karuNASrayA   |
	j~nAnAdi shADguNya mayI yA proktA prakRtih parA   ||
	ekaiva Saktih SrIh tasya dvitIyA parivartate   |
	parAvareNa rUpeNa sarvAkArA sanAtanI   ||
	ananta nAmadeyA ca Sakti-cakrasya nAyikA   |
	jagat carAcaram idam sarvam vyApya vyavasthitA   ||

“Likewise, Lakshmi is His Supreme Power, and She is endowed with the
quality of Mercy.  She is called the Supreme prakRti and possesses the
six qualities, knowledge and others.  Lakshmi is the supreme, unique,
and eternal Sakti of BhagavAn;  She is His second and transforms
Herself into diverse forms, high and low.  She has innumerable names,
and is the head of the Sakti-cakra – the wheel of powers.  She stands
steady, pervading the entire universe, moving and non-moving”.

In SrI LahsmI sahasra nAmam, She is described as follows:

	mahA-vibhUteh sampUrNa shad-guNya vapushah prabhoh   |
	bhagavad-vAsudevasya nityaiva esha anapAyinI   ||
	ekaiva vartate bhinnA jyotsneva hima dIdhiteh   |
	sarva SaktyAtmikA caiva viSvam vyApya vyavasthitA   ||
	sarvaiSvarya guNopetA nityam tad-dharma dharmiNI   |
	prANa Saktih parA hyeshA sarveshAm prANinAm bhuvi   ||
	SaktInAm caiva sarvAsAm yoni-bhUtA parA kalA   ||

 “She is eternal and inseparably associated with BhagavAn vAsudeva, who
is the Master of great glory, who is endowed with the six qualities,
and who is all powerful.  She is like the moon-light of the cool-rayed
moon;  She is one with Him, yet remains distinct.  She pervades the
Universe, and is the very embodiment of all Sakti-s.

She is endowed with all glory and qualities, and is eternal.  Her
dharma is the same as that BhagavAn.  She is the life-giving Sakti of
all beings on earth.  She is the source of all Sakti-s and is the
sublime element in 
all”.  

	yasmAt lakshmyamSa sambhUtAh Saktayo viSvagAh sadA    |
	kAraNyatvena tishThanti jagatyasmin tadAj~nayA      ||
	tasmAt prItA jaganmAtA SrIh yasya acyuta-vallabhA   |
	suprItAh Saktayah tasya siddhim ishTAm diSanti ca    ||

“All the Saktis that have emanated from Lakshmi are always pervading
the entire Universe.  They remain, under the command of SrI, as the
cause.  Therefore, when Lakshmi, the Mother of the Universe and the
beloved consort of Bhagavan Acyuta is pleased with someone, these
Saktis themselves highly pleased, bestow prosperity which one desires.”

After this detailed description of Lakshmi’s qualities, SrI BhaTTar
points out that this subject is more fully dealt with in vaishNava
smRti and other dharma SAstra-s.

rAmAyaNa also declares the greatness of Lakshmi in the Sloka in bAla
kANDam (4.7):  

	- kAvyam rAmAyaNam kRtsnam sItAyAh caritam mahat – “The entire epic
poem of rAmAyaNa is but the glorious story of sItA”.   
	 
SrI BhaTTar concludes his vyAkhyAnam for the nAma mAdhava in its first
occurrence in Slokam 8 (nAma 73), by elaborately dwelling on the
qualities of Lakshmi, and then ending with one line for mA-dahva, where
he attributes the greatness of mAdhava to His association with SrI: 
“SraddhayA devo devatvam aSnute – Lord VishNu gets His Lordship because
of His association with Lakshmi.  This is the secret about the true
nature of SrI”.

Under nAma-s 169 and 741, SrI BhaTTar gives alternate explanations for
the nAma mA-dhavah, but these a couple of sentences each in length,
compared to the very elaborate description above that he has given for
the first occurrence of the nAma in Slokam 8 (nAma 73).  It is clear
that SrI BhaTTar’s thoughts are about our Mother SrI in his anubhavam
of the nAma mA-dhava for the Lord.  

b) The Bestower of Knowledge (mA – The vidyA or knowledge of Hari;
dhava – Lord, Preceptor, Propounder)

For the nAma mA-dhava in Slokam 18 (nAma 169), both SrI Samkara and SrI
BhaTTar give the interpretation in terms of His being the Propounder
(dhavah) of the mA vidyA – the knowledge of Hari.  They both quote the
support from the harivamSa:

	mA vidyA ca hareh proktA tasyA Iso yato bhavAn   |
	tasmAt mA-dhava nAmAsi dhavah svAmIti Sabditah   || (3.69.4)

“The knowledge about of Hari is called mA.  Thou art the Master of that
knowledge.  Therefore Thou art known as mAdhava.  It has been stated
that dhava means “Lord””.

SrI cinmayAnanda elaborates further on the above.  He Who helps
introspection and meditation in the seeker is Madhava.  

SrI BhaTTar gives additional support from the mahAbhArata:

	madhu vidyA avabodhatvAt dhAvatvAt-vA Sriyo’niSam    |
	maunAd-dhyAnAcca yogAcca viddhi bhArata mAdhavam   || (mahA. 3.69.4)

There are three explanations that are given in the above Sloka for the
nAma mAdhavah.  

c) first  is that since He is cognized through madhu vidyA, He is
called mAdhavah (madhu vidyA is referenced in chAndogya Upanishad 3.1,
bRhadAraNya upanishad 2.5); 

the second explanation is that He is the Lord of SrI (the explanation
discussed in detail under a) for this nAma); 

d) and the third one is that because He is recognized through dhyAna,
mauna, and yoga,  He is called mA-dhavah.  

The dharma cakram writer explains mauna, dhyAna, and yoga further. 
Mauna results in  the control of the indriya-s; dhyAna focuses the mind
in the thought of the Atma tattvam, and yoga solidifies and
consolidates this thought on a permanent basis.   

e) Under the current nAma, both SrI Samkara and SrI BhaTTar give the
interpretation that He is a scion of the Race of the Madhus, and
therefore has the name mAdhavah (madhu kulodhbahavAt mAdhavah, or madhu
kule jAtatvAt mAdhavah).  

f) Another explanation given by SrI BhaTTar for the nAma is that this
nAma is an illustration of the togetherness of SrI and BhagavAn as
Mother and Father of all of us.  SrI v.v. rAmAnujan comments the
importance of this special relationship of bhagavAn and pirATTi to the
world, and their togetherness always, in the protection of the jIva-s. 
It is of because of the Mother’s nearness that bhagavAn forgives the
countless apacAra-s committed by the cetana-s.  It is in this sense
that it is important for all of us that He is “agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu
alrmEl ma’ngai uRai mArban” (tiruvAi. 6.10.10), and She is always with
Him. 

g) SrI tirukkaLLam nRsimha rAghavAcArya in his gItA bhAshya, has given
another interpretation – mA dhavah yasya sa mAdhavah – He for Whom
there is no Master.  Since there is no one above Him in any sense, and
since He is the Lord of everyone and every thing in all the universes,
He is called mA-dhavah.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan


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