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Re: Posting 3c) Classification of Reals Contd.

From: Venkat Nagarajan (
Date: Fri May 07 1999 - 13:31:04 PDT

Dear Bhagavatas,

Definition 1 ( a more precise statement):

A real that under the influence of an external real is 
subject to change (i.e., a change which is inseparably
related to the real), as recognized by the valid means of
acquiring knowledge, is denoted a substance.

Axiom 2: A non-substance cannot exist independent of a 

***Combining definition 1 and axiom 2, we can conclude 
that a catalyst (the real that brings about the change) must 
also be a substance.

Example 2.

A Light bulb is a substance (dravya.)  Just like the monitor 
screen, the light bulb is also subject to change; the change
is inseparably related to the light bulb and is initiated by the 
power button (the power button is a real not within the
light bulb.) [I am making use of the refined statement of 
definition 1 to classify a real as a substance.]

Example 3. [ An example where a real undergoes a 
modification, but the modification is not considered an 
attribute, since it is not inseparably related to the real.]

A pencil is a real.  Treat it as an unclassified item, for now.  
Placing the pencil on a sheet of paper initiates a change,
but this modification is not an attribute of the pencil, as it
is not inseparably related to it.

Note the following:  

1.  Under the old definition 1, this change would have been 
sufficient to classify the real as a substance.  However, we 
would have not been able to call the modification an 
attribute by Definition 3.

2. Now with the refined definition 1 (the correct one) this 
change would not be sufficient for us to classify the real
as a substance.  Further, as was the case before, by 
definition 3 the modification would not qualify as an attribute.  
This is the correct set of conclusions!
3.  Examples were concocted

4.  See how thorough our Acharyas were!  What a 
structured, rational, and thorough exposition on the nature
of reality.  You will see it more and more as we go along.