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SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 31.

From: Krishnamachari, N (Krish) (nkrish_at_lucent.com)
Date: Tue May 12 1998 - 11:02:37 PDT

		SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 31.

	amr*tAmSUdbhavo bhAnuh SaSabinduh sureSvarah        |
	aushadham jagatah setuh satya-dharma parAkramah           ||

Om amr*tAmSUdbhavAya namah
Om bhAnave namah
Om SaSabindave namah
Om sureSvarAya namah
Om aushadhAya namah
Om jagatas-setave namah
Om satya-dharma-parAkramAya namah.

284. amr*ta-amSu-udbhavah - The source of nectar-rayed moon.

Om amr*tAmSUdbhavAya namah.

This nAma consists of three words - amr*ta, amSu, and udbhavah.  amr*ta
means immortal or life-giving, amSu refers to rays, and udbhavah is one
who created.  Both SrI BhaTTar and SrI Sankara have interpreted this as
referring to the creation of the moon by the Lord during the churning of
the Milky Ocean.  This is generally the interpretation that most other
authors have accepted.  SrI cinmayAnanda gives reference to the gItA to
point out how the moon's rays are life-giving to the plants -  pushNAmi
caushadhIh sarvAh somo bhUtvA rasAtmakah - I become the life-giving rays
of the moon and make all the plants grow and flourish.

SrI satyadevo vASishTha has given an independent interpretation.  He
uses the meaning liquid or "jalam" for the word amr*ta, and the meaning
"distribute" from amSu - vibhAjane to distribute,  and  gives the
interpretation that the name means that He created the life-forms by
distributing the waters or amr*ta.  He gives the example of how the
life-form is created in the mother's womb floating in the waters, and
how lthe physical body is kept healthy and well-nourished by drinking
the water and eating the food.  

285. bhAnuh - The lustrous Sun or One who is Radiant.

Om bhAnave namah.

BhAti iti bhAnuh - That which shines or One who shines.   BhagavAn is
the source of radiance to the Sun itself.  The passage from
muNDakopanishad - tameva bhAntam anubhAti sarvam, tasya bhAsA sarvamidam
vibhAti -(muNda - 2.2.10).   He illumines Himself, and illumines
everything else in this world as well, including the Sun, whose lustre
is one-thousandth of His lustre.  SrI satyadevo vAsishTha also points
out that He is the lustre in all of us by being the agni or fire in all
bodies.  As long as this agni is lit in our body, we are healthy; when
the fire subsides, the body is non-functional (death of the body
occurs).  So He is the bhAnu in all of us. 

The dharma cakram author reminds us that the light of the Sun can only
give external light, but cannot help in revealing the paramAtmA or the
Supreme Soul.   This can be done only by the paramAtmA or bhAnu.

286. SaSabinduh - a) He who disowns the evil-minded.
		b) The Moon
		c) One who controls the paths of the planets and the
stars.

Om SaSabindave namah.

SrI BhaTTar derives the interpretation from SaSa - pluta gatau - to
swerve or jump from the right path, and bindu derived from bidi - to
disown.  

SrI Sankara has interpreted the nAma as referring to the moon.  The
interpretation given is - One who has the mark of a hare - viz. the
moon.  This is based on the words SaSa meaning hare,and bindu meaning a
dot.  Since the moon has a mark which looks like a hare, this
interpretation is given. 

SrI sataydevo vAsishTha has used the nAma as SaSa-vinduh instead of
SaSa-binduh.  He uses the meaning for SaSa as that which leaps or moves
around, from the root SaS - pluta-gatau.   For vindu he derives the
meaning from the root vid - j~nAne - to know ( based on the pANini sUtra
vinduricchuh - 3.2.167) - vinduh = vedana SilAh - intelligent.  Thus for
the nAma SaSavinduh, the meaning given is One who knows (controls) the
paths of all the planets and stars (the Sun, the moon, etc.).

287. sureSvarah - The Lord of the gods.

Om sureSvarAya namah.

SurANAm Isvarah sureSvarah - One who is the Leader of all the gods.
Just as He disowns those who go in the wrong path (previous nAma), this
name says that he is the Leader of those who tread the good path.  The
word sura itself is composed of su - Sobhana, and rA - dAnah i.e., one
that brings or bestows auspicious or good things.  One who is the Lord
of those who bestow auspiciousness or do good in plenty is sureSvara. 

The dharma cakram writer reminds us that the significance of this nAma
is that by worshipping mahA vishNu who is the sureSvara, we will move
towards the path of the sura-s. 

288. aushadham - The Medicine.

Om aushadhAya namah.

He is the Ultimate Medicine for the poison of samsAra, and there is no
other medicine for this.  In mahAbhArata we have "devA devarshayaScaiva
yam viduh duhkha bheshajam"- The gods and the celestial sages know Him
to be the remedy for distress - Santi parva 79-22.  Another quote in SrI
BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam (the source is not given) is  "ekAgratA mUlya
balena labhyam bhavaushadham tvam bhagavan! kilaikah"  - Oh BhagavAn!
Thou alone art verily the recipe for the samSAra, and can be obtained by
the high price of the concentration of the mind on Thee".    

Dr. V. V. rAmAnujan has given the following reference from divya
prabandham in support of the interpretation of this nAma -  "tE~ngOda
vaNNan varu naragam tIrkkum marundu" - 3rd tiruvandAdi - 3.

The dharma cakram writer points out that BhagavAn who is Nature
Incarnate is aushdham in day-to-day life as well since inhaling the
fresh air of nature, eating food which is not synthetic, etc., lead to a
healthier life.  

289. jagatah-setuh -  a) The barrier for the world.
		b) The brodge for corssing the ocean of samsAra.
		c) One who binds and keeps in-tact all that moves in
this world.

Om jagatah-setave namah.

He is the barrier that ensures that there is order in the different
things in this world, by making sure that the good and bad do not mix
together in a chaoatic way.   He ensures that there is no effect for the
karma that is not undertaken, there is always effect for the karma that
has been undertaken. Those who do good get the benefit for their good
and those who indulge in bad deeds get the benefit of their bad deeds,
etc.  The passage from br*hadAraNya upanishad is given in support of
this interpretation - eshah setuh vidharaNa eshAm lokAnAm asambhedAya -
6.4.22 (He is the bridge that supports all the worlds so that they may
not get into confusion).    

SrI Sankara gives an additional interpretation, viz. that He is the
bridge for crossing the ocean of samsAra.  
	
SrI satdevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that BhagavAn ties
together all that exists in this world.  This includes the function of
holding together the different bones, nerves, and muscles in the body,
as well as the system of stars and planets.  Jagat is derived from gati
- that which moves, and setu - that which binds.  He is the setu in all
bodies, and in addition holds all these bodies and other things that
exist in this world together in order, and thus He is hagatah-setu.

The dharma cakram writer gives the example of a river which is bound by
its banks and kept in control, or the ocean which is bound by the land
surrouding it and kept under control.  So also, BhagavAn has kept the
jivAtmA under control by limiting it to the indriya sukham and the ocean
of samsAra.  It is only mahA vishNu who can help this jIvAtmA out of
these bounds, and it is by meditating on Him that the jIvAtmA can get
liberated and cross the ocean of samsAra.

290. satya-dharma-parAkramah -  One whose qualities and valor are always
true.

Om satya-dharma-parAkramAya namah.

Here dharma refers to the auspicious qualities of BhagavAn, and
parAkrama refers to His valor.  One in whom they are never failing
(satya) is satya-dharma-parAkramah.  SrI cinmayAnanda interprets the
nAma to mean that BhagavAn is one who embodies satya (truth), dharma
(righteous), and parAkrama (heroism).  In vAlmIki rAmAyaNa SrI rAma is
referred to as satya-parAkramah - One whose parAkrama is never in vain,
and is always used for the good of the world.

The writer in dharma cakram points out that the nAma tells us the
importance of living a life of truth, righteousenss, and the valor
resulting from this kind of life.  Those who live a life along these
lines are bound to succeed in what they do, as evidenced by the lives of
HanumAn, Bhishma, etc.

-dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan