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SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam - Slokam 68 - Part 2.

From: Narasimhan Krishnamachari (
Date: Sun May 13 2001 - 22:28:58 PDT

			SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam – Slokam 68.


           SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam - Slokam 68 - Part 2. 

SrI BhaTTar interprets the next few nAma-s as describing the vyUha
(Emanations) and vibhava (Incarnations) of bhagavAn in the holy
shrines.  SrI v.v. rAmAnujan adds that the forms described are His
representations in the para, vyUha, and vibhava forms in different
kshetra-s.   Note that the vyUha forms are the ones which are the
precursors to the vibhava forms in the viSAkha yUpa tree, and are the
forms which He assumes in the process of creating and maintaining the
various beings in the Universe. 

644. aniruddhah – a) He Who is in the form of aniruddhah.
		b) He Who is unobstructed.

Om aniruddhAya namah.

This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 187.  The root from which the word
is derived is rudhir – AvaraNe to oppose, to besiege.  niruddha means
obstructed, hindered, restrained, etc.  a-niruddha is one who is
unrestrained or unrestrainable.  The nAma literally means “One who
cannot be obstructed in any way” – na asti nirodho yasya sa aniruddhah
(SrI satyadevo vAsishTha).   SrI BhaTTar has explained nAma 187 by
pointing that this Unobstructed Power is used by Him to protect all
beings and to repel all opposition in this act of His.   (Note that
always bhagavAn’s acts are for the good of His creation, His devotees,
His Sesha-s, and never for His pleasure or benefit!  This is also seen
in all His incarnations, such as the rAma and kRshNa incarnations,
where none could stop Him from fulfilling the purpose of His
incarnation).  The aniruddha  form is considered one of the vyUha
forms.  His main function in this form is protection of the beings (SrI
rAdhAkRshNa SAstri terms this form as “kAppuk kaDavuL”).  The dharma
cakram writer observes that this form of bhagavAn also illustrates that
He has the unobstructed Power to help His devotees who want to overcome
the influence of the indriya-s.

SrI cinmayAnanda refers to the law of Truth and dharma being
irresistible, as a demonstration of His irresistible power.   SrI
satyadevo vAsishTha gives the example of the inability of anyone or any
way to prevent the jIva from leaving the body when the time comes for
this to happen.

For the current occurrence of the nAma aniruddhah,  SrI BhaTTar gives
the interpretation as referring to bhagavAn’s nitya vAsam as janArdana
in the part of this earth called vasubhANDa.  Some translators of SrI
BahTTar’s bhAshyam refer to vasubhANDa as a kshetram.  

645. a-prati-rathah – The Matchless.

Om aprati-rathAya namah.

prati-rathan is one who can oppose another in a fight mounted in a
chariot.   a-prati-rathan is One who has no such person who can
confront Him thus.   bhagavan is matchless in the sense that no one can
stand directly in front of His chariot and engage successfully in a war
with him.  na prati-rathah samAna SaktimAn ko’pi yasya iti
a-prati-rathah (SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj).  SrI v.v. rAmAnujan  gives
the reference to tiruvAimozhi 2.3.2 – “ottAr mikkArai ilaiyAya mAyan”. 
SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that as janArdana (The Tormentor
of people who are wicked by nature), He is matchless in this task, and
there is no one who can stop Him.  SrI Samkara bhAshyam is –
prati-rathah pratipakshah asya na vidyata iti a-prati-rathah.  SrI
kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives reference to the gItA – na tvat
samo’styabhyadhikah kuto’nya… (11.43) – “There is no one equal to You. 
How then could there be another greater than You in the three worlds?”.

SrI cinmayAnanda’s anubhavam is that in the loving Presence of vishNu,
everyone is vanquished, and there is no one even to threaten Him.

646. pradyumnah – a) He Who illumines the jIva-s.
		b) He Whose wealth is of a superior order.
		c) The Bestower of all desires.
		d) He Who is endowed with great strength.

om pradyumnAya namah.

The word dyumnam means wealth as well as luster.  SrI Samkara uses the
former meaning and SrI BhaTTar uses the latter.   Other interpretations
are based on the meaning “desire”, “strength”, etc. for the word

SrI BhaTTar’s explanation is “Atma pradyotavAn pradyumnah” – He who
makes the individual souls effulgent.   Per information in SrI v.v.
rAmAnujan’s book, we can worship pradyumna in tiru-allik-kENi.   I
believe tirunaRaiyUr or nAcciyAr koil is another kshetram where
bhagavAn is present in the four vyUha forms.  

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha, who analyzes the meaning of each nAma by
looking at the word syllable by syllable, derives the meaning from pra
+ dyu + mna (pra -  prakRshTa, utkRshTa – Superior; dyu – luster; mnA –
abhyAse - repeatedly.    Thus, he gives the interpretation that
bhagavAn displays His special luster again and again in the form of the
sun, and so He is called pradyumna; or because He gives luster to the
jIva-s repeatedly birth after birth.  We can also extrapolate and have
the anubhavam that  because He takes several incarnations and keeps
displaying His superior luster repeatedly, He is also called pradyumna.
 Thus, SrI satyadevo vAsishTha’s interpretation draws heavily on “mnA –
abhyAse – repeatedly, again and again.   

SrI Samkara gives the interpretation “prakRshTam dyumnam draviNam asya
iti pradyumnah” – One who has wealth of a superior order, or One who
has enormous wealth.  SrI cinmayAnanda adds that as lakshmI-pati, He is
endowed with all the riches, and in His benevolence, He gives riches
and mighty glory to all His devotees. 

Again, we note the difference in the approach of the vyAkhyAna-s of SrI
Samkara and SrI BhaTTar – SrI BhaTTar emphasizes bhagavAn’s qualities
in terms of helping the jIva-s, and SrI Samkara emphasizes His

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the additional meaning “desire” to the
word dyumnam.   pradyumna is the Deity for manas, and in this role He
creates the desires in us that contribute to the sustenance of
creation.  The dharma cakram writer gives the interpretation that the
desires being fulfilled are those of the devotees to realize the Self. 
The best of desires that for Self-realization and for performing
eternal service to Him.  He is the Only One who can fulfill this, and
so He is called pradyumna – The Bestower of all desires.

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the meaning “balam” or strength for the
word dyumnam, and gives the meaning “He who has distinguished strength”
- prakRshTam dyumnam balam yasya iti pradyumnah.  He quotes the support
from medinI kOSam 1.20.11 – dyumnam vittam bale’pi ca.  SrI baladeva
vidyAbhUshaN also gives the same interpretation – prakRshTam anantam
balam asya iti pradyumnah.  

647. amita-vikramah – He of immeasurable steps.

Om amita-vikramAya namah.

This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 519.  See the write-up under Slokam

vikrama means stride.  SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as a reference
to His tri-vikrama incarnation – trilokye’pi aparya vasita vikramatvAt
trivikramah amita-vikramah – “In His incarnation as trivikrama, all the
three worlds were no match for His three steps.  So He is tri-vikrama”.
  SrI v.v. rAmAnujan takes amita as a reference to “innumerable”, and
gives the interpretation that He has innumerable feet – tALgaL
AyirattAi pErgaL AyirattAi tamiyanEn periya appanE (tiruvAi. 8.1.10). 
Note the declaration in purusha sUktam – sahasra SirshA purushah;
sahasrAkshah sahasra pAt.  SrI Samkara has given this as the first of
his two interpretations fpr the earlier occurrence of this nAma (Slokam

Vikrama also means prowess, heroic valor.  For the current occurrence
of the nAma, SrI Samkara uses this meaning and gives the interpretation
that He is amita-vikramah because of His unequaled prowess which cannot
be injured by any one – amitah atulitah vikramah asya iti amita
vikramah; a-himsita vikramo vA.   This interpretation in terms of His
boundless valor was given by SrI BhaTTar for the earlier occurrence of
this nAma (519).   SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri makes a connection to the
previous nAma by observing that since pradyumna is the Lord of manas,
He acts with unlimited speed of mind (power of mind) in His role as
pradyumna, and so He is also called amita-vkramah.  SrI cinmayAnanda
remarks that as SrIman nArAyaNa, He is Omnipotent, and none can stand
against Him.  

SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaN, a follower of the gauDiya vaishNava
sampradAyam, interprets the nAma in terms of  the Prowess displayed by
child kRshNa – ati-vikramiNAmapi cANUrAdInAm helaiva vinASanAt
amita-vikramah – He is called amita-vikrama because He destroyed the
likes of the mighty cANUra as if in  a sport.  Thus we see that the
different interpreters interpret the nAma-s in terms of their
sampradaAya-s, all of which are equally valid except when it comes to
deep philosophical differences.  Thus, in most instances, we benefit by
getting exposed to multiple, equally enjoyable, anubhavam-s of His
kalyAna guNa-s.  

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan 



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