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VMN 2 (formerly Mokshadikari) : JAyamAna kaTAksham
Date: Sun May 21 2000 - 12:59:18 PDT

    VMN 2: JAyamAna kaTAksham

In the write up on "Vilakshana Mokshadikari Nirnayam" (hereafter called VMN) 
of Sri Erumbiappa, the following was quoted from the work  " Vaikuntam pugum 
maNNavar yaar?' by Dr.R Rangarajan.

"This glance is called "jAyamAna kaTAksham" in Sanskrit and "karuvilE thiru" 
in Tamizh. Only those who are fortunate to "catch the eye" of the Lord in 
this manner will ever get a desire for Moksham. One who gets this desire is 
called a "Mumukshu".

A Bhagavata has raised the following question:
"In our (dESika) sampradAyam, the jAyamAna kaTAksham   is not a result of 
"reasonless mercy". It is only due to the appropriate sukrudams associated 
with that jIvAtma. In Brahma SUtras it is established that ISwara is 
non-partial. If His kaTAksham to some arbitrary jIvAtma is made to make it a 
mumukshu, due to  His *reasonless* mercy, the ISwara will be liable to 
partiality and it is in opposition with Sastras. Please clarify in your 
leisure, the purport of your explanation on jAyamAna kaTAksham as being  out 
of reasonless mercy of PerumAL"

The Bhagavata has raised a very important point that has been a subject of 
great debate. There is no doubt that the Lord is scrupulously impartial  as 
between the Jivas. But, how come He bestows his JAyamAna kaTAksham on only a 
few ignoring others and even with reference to any particular jiva at some 
point of time and not earlier, as asked by NammAzhwAr in his Koviladi 

Swami Desika has clearly explained this point in several of his works.
Though this is known as "nirhEtuka kripa", (reasonless mercy) it should be 
understood that this may appear reasonless for the jivas from their point of 
view but the Lord may have His own reasons that are beyond the comprehension 
of the jivas. In spite of his limitless independence (nirankusa swAtantryam), 
He has His own self imposed norms with which He binds Himself and which He 
would never transgress.

In our Siddhantam the concepts of Karma, Punarjanma and Dharma are cardinal. 
Karmas both good and bad lead to happiness or suffering in the same janma or 
in a subsequent one.. And, unless there is a nil balance of Karma, there can 
be no escape for the Jiva. 

In Lord's creation, all are equal. He has also provided guidelines for Jivas 
through Sastras which are His commands so that the Jivas could adopt those 
karmas which can obliterate the effects of their actions also called 
"NishkAmya karmas". 

And, He has also granted them some amount of freedom through what is known as 
"IchchA Sakti", "Chitta Sakti" and "Pravritti or Kriya Sakti". When the Jiva 
desires, intends and executes through these Saktis they are free to follow or 
flout the commandments and are born again to enjoy or suffer the 

Otherwise, there is no need for such aphorisms as "Satyam Vada", "Dharmam 
Chara" etc which imply that the Jiva has some elbow room for either 
respecting or disregarding these edicts.

It is intriguing why in spite of this, the Lord should wait patiently to see 
that the jivas do some "Sukritam" in this or any subsequent births in order 
for Him to bestow His kaTAksham. Out of His infinite compassion, even if a 
Jiva does some good act called 'AjnAtha Sukritam" or "yadruchA Sukritam", the 
Lord hastens to acknowledge this as reason enough for conferring His 
"JAyamAna KaTAkasham". 

Acharyas used to cite the example of a person who chases a temple cow that 
goes round the temple. He did not do so with any intention to do 
PradakshiNam. Yet, out of mercy, the Lord is said to take this unintended 
good deed (AjnAtha Sukritam) as a pretext to save the person and provide him 
the means to make him fit for His grace.

Another example our Acharyas used to mention is that a mouse that 
unintentionally bumps on a lighted lamp before the Lord's archa vigraham 
accidentally trims the wick of the lamp to shine more brilliantly. The Lord 
would deem it as its having done a Sukritam (YadrechA Sukritam) and grants 
the benefit of His "JayamAna KaTAksham" and it is said to be reborn in a more 
evolved state on its onward march to its deliverance in due course through 
Bhakti or Prapatti, in its next birth.

Swami Desika in the UpOtkaA4a Adhikaram lists the various circumstances in 
which one gets to acquire this KaTAksham in the slOka -
Iswarasya cha souhArdham *yadruchchA- Sukritam* thathA/
VishNO: kaTAksham adwEsham abhimukhyam cha Satvikai://
which include inter alia  this "accidental merit".

Sri  Erumbiappa in a later portion of his work goes one step further and 
refers to the argument of some who quote AzhwAr's assurance " veridhE aruL 
seyvAn" which leads to the inference that even sinners can hope for 
redemption on the basis of this "nirhEtuka kripa" of the Lord. 

He clarifies that this kaTAksham relates only to the first time the Lord 
takes pity on the jivan deeming the "Yadrucha Sukritam" as a pretext for 
showering His grace and NOT to subsequent behavior in the "PrApti dasa". This 
does not confer a license to indulge in "Durvishayam" after becoming a 

 "If this were to be accepted", says Erumbiappa, "it would mean that one need 
not be a VishNU bhakta at all (which is "Sastra viruddham)"

Erumbiappa further avers-
"If one were to deserve the real grace of the Lord that could take one right 
up to Moksha, it is not enough if one becomes  a mumukshu; it is not enough 
if one becomes a Prapanna; It is not even enough if one becomes an EkAnti; 
One should become a real ParamaikAnti (P/E). ...

...This means that such a one should get rid of ahamkaram and mamakaram 
(I-ness and mine-ness) completely in thought, word and deed. Even  sexual 
relationship with the legally married wife (deemed a Grihasta Dharma) should 
be eschewed". 
He calls it "Vihitha Vishaya Nivritti). 

And says that all these have been amply reiterated by AzhwArs and AchAryas in 
one voice in many of their Prabandams"
Anbil Ramaswamy
    VMN 3 What does  a mumukshu do? Will follow

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