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vishNu sahasranAmam (5)

From: 'srini' Srinivasan Srivilliputhur (
Date: Tue Mar 19 1996 - 17:38:31 PST

	PB = Translation of srI parAsara bhattar's commentary.
	SA = Translation of srI sankarAchArya's commentary.
(sl-7)	agrAhyaH SASvataH kRshNo lohitAkshaH pratardanaH
	prabhUtas-trikakubdhAma pavitram mangalam param

55   agrAhyaH 

	PB:	One who is beyond the grasp (of others). He cannot be handled
		like mud (by a potter) or thread (by a weaver). He is not
		controlled by anyone- agrAhya. Vide-
		"One could grasp Him neither at the top, nor across, nor 
		in the middle",
		"He alone controls creation".

	SA:	One who cannot be grasped by the organs of knowledge or
		concieved by mind. TaiU. (2.9):
		"yato vAco nivartante aprApya manasA saha- He is beyond
		speech and thought".

56   SASvataH 

	PB:	The eternal. He is so called because of the continuous flow
		of His action pertaining to the Universe. Vide-
		"His actions (creation, sustenance and destruction) are
		going on constantly".

	SA:	One who exists at all times (SASvat). nArU. (13.1):
		"SAsvatam Sivam acyutam- He is eternal, auspicious and 

57   kRshNaH 

	PB:	He who is exceedingly delighted (by such creation, 
		etc.). i.e. He is the embodiment of Ananda due to His 

	SA:	The Existence-Knowledge-Bliss. 
		MahabhArata, udyoga-parva (70.5):
		"The syllable 'kR' denotes existence and 'na' denotes bliss.
		vishNu is both these. So He is always kRshNa".
		Because of His Dark color He is called 'kRshNa'.
58   lohitAkshaH 

	PB:	The Red-eyed (due to the Ananda described in 'kRshNa')

	SA:	The Red-eyed.

59   pratardanaH 

   PB and SA:	Destroyer of all (during pralaya). Vide-
		"He who has for food the brahmins and the kshattriyas (i.e.
		all beings)"
		"He is a great consumer by drawing to Himself the 
		both moving and unmoving".

60   prabhUtaH 

	PB :	He who is affluent / possessed of plenty (though He destroys
		all Universe during pralaya). He ever shines in 
		possessing and giving endless joy to all.

	SA:	Great because of unique qualities like omnipotence etc.

61   trikakubdhAmaH 

	PB:	He who has a three fold world as His abode. Vide-
		"All the world comprised in this Universe from a forth
		part. His Divine abode is three times as large". Another
		explanation is: trikakuth indicates three pairs of
	 	qualities, j~nana (Omniscience), bala (Strength),
		aiSwarya (Sovereignty), vIrya (Constancy), Sakti (Power),
		tejaH (Lustre). Or, trikakubdhAmaH may also represent the
		varAha avatAra.

	SA:	He who is the support (dhAma) of the three regions above, 
		below and in the middle.

62   pavitram 

	PB:	Embodiment/Incarnate of Purity. The earlier names descriptive
		of His guNAs (qualities), aiSwarya (riches) and rUpA (form)
		lead by stages to to the description of His Personality,
		which is Purity embodied.

	SA:	He who purifies everything.

63   mangalam param 

	PB:	The Embodiment of Supreme Auspiciousness (opposed to all that
		is mean and inauspicious). 'param' indicates the 
		nature of 'mangalam' (Auspiciousness). Vide-
		"He is immersed fully in incomparable/immeasurable bliss",
		"satyam, j~nanam, anantam brahma - That Supreme is Truth,
		Knowledge and Eternal",
		"Anando brahma- That Supreme is Bliss".

	SA:	Supremely Auspicious. vishNu purANa says:
		"That whose very remembrance removes the inauspicious and 
		bestows the auspicious in abundance- the brahman is 
		'mangalam' by the wise".
(sl-8)	ISAnaH prANadaH prANo jyeshThaH SreshThaH prajApatiH
	hiraNyagarbho bhUgarbho mAdhavo madhu-sUdanaH

64   ISAnaH 

	PB:	The Controller (of all at all times). This clearly 
		distinguishes Him from the bound/released/ever-free souls 
		whose qualities are shrouded or manifested. The affix 
		'chAnas' is added to a verb to denote the sense of being 
		one's nature. i.e. Naturally, He regulates all in the 
		Universe at all times. Vide-
		"Him, the greatest Lord, greater than all the greats",
		"Knowledge, Power and Action are His innate nature",
		"The Supreme Soul is the Support of all, He is parameSwara"

	SA:	Hw who controls/regulates all.

65   prANadaH 

	PB:	The life-giver (the foremost of his aiSwaryas). He gives
		life and spiritual strength to the ever-free souls(niyasUris)
		to enable them visualize Him always, enjoy Him, and do 
		to Him. Vide-
		"Who offers His own self and strength",
		"That Lord enters as life (into the beings of the Universe)".

	SA:	One who activates/bestows prANa, the vital energy. 
		TaitU. (2.7): "ko hy'evAnyAt, kaH prANyAt - if there were not
		the Lord, who is then to activate the prANa?"
		Or, one who destroys (dyati) the prANas.

66   prANaH 

	PB:	Life(of niyasUris) and the cause of living of all. Vide-
		"Thereafter He remained as the life of all Gods",
		"Who else can be life, excepting Him",
		"Therefore this indestructible Supreme is the life, 
		and mind",

	SA:	The Supreme being. BrU. (4.4.18) says: "prANasya prANaH- 
		the life force behind life force". The second life force 
		the jIva (living soul of individual). The Supreme Being is
		the life force even behind it. Thus, He is the mukya prANa.

67   jyeshThaH 

	PB:	Highly praise-worthy (because of His possessing riches of 
		unlimited and unimaginable extent, though they are being 
		enjoyed ever and in all possible ways by Him and niyasUris).
		"The glory of Bhagavan vasudeva is most praise worthy",
		"Brahman alone is most praise worthy".
		Another meaning is "the Oldest of all beings" as He existed
		before all.

	SA:	He is the eldest/oldest.

68   SreshThaH 

	PB:	The Pre-eminent. He is always adored by stotras by the 
		niyasUris due to the Ananda enjoyed by them permanently
		in moksha.
		"tasmai devA upAsate - Pious souls who are subordinate to Him
		do service to Him".

	SA:	Most praise-worthy (as He is replete with all excellences).
		ChU. (5.1.1) says: "prANo vAva jyeshthaS ca SreshthaS ca -
		prANa alone is the eldest and the greatest".
		The reference is to the concept of mukya prANa. Or being
		the first cause and thus elder to all, He is jyeshThaH, 
		and being the highest Being excelling others, He is SreshThaH.

69   prajApatiH 

	PB:	Who are they and how are they related to Him? The answer is
		'prajApatiH'. niyasUris are called 'prajaH' as they are vastly
		superior to bound/freed souls. Vide-
		"The niyasUris reside in Him who is far superior to Universe".

	SA:	The Master of all living beings, because He is ISvara.

70   hiraNya-garbhaH 

	PB:	He who is in a lovely abode (where only sattwa/purity abounds
		forever). This is similar to hiraNya or Gold. Or 'hita 
		ramaNIya', i.e. agreeable and lovely. It is said to be 
		with Him as He is always there. Vide-
		"In that supreme golden world, that Supreme brahman lives 
		free from qualities of activity and darkness, a luminary 
		superior to all luminaries. This, the niyasUris know. 
		the Sun does not shine".

	SA:	One who is the Atman of even brahma (the creator). brahma is
		called hiraNya-garbhaH- the luminous globe containing the whole
		universe in the seminal form (brahmANda). Rg veda (10-121.1)-
		"hiraNya-garbhaH samavartat'Agre - at first 
		alone existed".

71   bhUgarbhaH 

	PB:	He for whom Earth is the object of protection. This 
		that He has bhoomi (Earth) as His consort. She is being
		rejuvenated by Him by constant enjoyment and herein she 
		like the garbha (womb or child). Vide-
		"Goddess bhoomi is the spouse of vishNu and ever young".

	SA:	Having the bhUmi (earth) within (womb) Himself.

72   mAdhavaH 

	PB:	The consort of mA (lakshmi/srI). Vide-
		"srI, the consort of vishNu, rules the Universe".
		srI sUkta and other texts show that lakshmi is all sakti
		and pervades the universe. The Lord is inseparable from
		Her and enjoys His aiSwarya etc. along with Her. rAmAyaNa 
		says, "The entire rAmAyaNa is a great narrative od sItA".

	SA:	The consort of mA (lakshmi/srI). Or one who is fit to
		be known through madhu-vidhyA. MahAbharata Udyo. (70.4):
		"O bhArata! know mAdhava through mauna (slience), dyAna 
		(meditation) and Yoga".

73   madhusUdanaH 

	PB:	The slayer of demon madhu. He is called madhusUdana as He
		is the controller of all and bestows undisputed prosperity
		by slaying the asurAs. 
		Or, 'madhu' means sense-organs. Since He helps His devotees
		to restrain indriyAs He is madhusUdana.

	SA:	The slayer of demon madhu.

S. G. Srinivasan                email :
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Dept. Of Mater. Sci. & Engg.
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