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vishNu sahasranAmam - (4)

From: 'srini' Srinivasan Srivilliputhur (sgsrini_at_u.washington.edu)
Date: Fri Mar 15 1996 - 14:32:49 PST

Dear bhaktAs-
I promised to post the meaning of 10 slokas today.  Seems like I 
did not understand his infinite/immeasurable (aprameyaH) nature :-)
Posting the meanings comparing the outlook of the two schools is proving 
to be very time consuming (as I first attempt understand them). I'll try 
to do my best. I'm posting the meaning of the first six slokas. I've 
expanded the references to four books (I've included the translations of  
Prof.A. Srinivasa Raghavan (A Visishtadvaita Pracharini sabha Pub.) and 
Prof.L. Venkatarathnam Naidu (A TTD Pub.).  

kIrtanIya sadA hariH

-Srinivasan


vyAsa intends to indicate the sum and substance of the vedAnta philosophy 
by the first six/seven names in the sahasranAmam. The names are sUtra like,
suggestive of vedAnta philosophy.  The names can be viewed as an elaboration
of the first name 'viSwam' (full in all respects).

				nAmAvali
				--------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(sl-1)	om viSvam vishNur vashaT-kAro bhUta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuH
	bhUtakRd bhUbhRd bhAvo bhUtAtmA bhUta-bhAvanaH

1   viSvam (The All/Universe)

	PB:	viSvam refers to pUrNa (totality or complete fullness) and 
		is appropriate beginning. He is paripUrNa- full in all 
		respects- full in all aspects, such as rUpa, gUNas and 
		vibhUtis. bhagavAn fills everything, and is therefore viSvam. 
		panshasikha has commented on this word in mokshadharma, in 
		the context of samyama (control of the mind) "O' great king, 
		they say the worlds are identical with viSwam" (because He 
		enters into and fills the entire cosmos). 

	SA:	He whom the Upanisads indicate by the passage 'yataH sarvANi
		bhUtAni' as the cause of generation, sustenation and 
		dissolution of the universe. He is brahmaN, the Non-dual 
		Supreme Being. The term viSvam meaning 'the all or the whole 
		manifested universe indicates Him, both in relation to His
		adjunct of the universe and without it.  As the effect can
		indicate the cause, He is called by the name 'viSvam' - the
		universe of manifestation having its source in Him and thus 
		forming His effect.

		Alternatively, as the universe has no existence apart from him,
		He can be called viSvam, the Universe. 'brahma ev'edam 
		viSvamidam varishTham (this universe is verily the supreme 
		brahman - MuU.2-2-11), and purusha ev'edam viSvam (all this
		universe is purusha Himself - MuU.2-1-10) support this.

		Its root viSati means enter or interpenetrate. Brahman 
		interpenetrates everything: tat sRshtvA tad ev'AnuprAviSat 
		(having projected the universe, he entered into it- 
		TaitreyaU.2.6) and yat prayAnty abhisamviSanti (that into
		which all beings enter at the time of dissolution -
		TaitreyaU.3.1).  Thus brahman enters into its effect, the 
		Universe, and the Universe enters or dissolves in Him. Thus,
		in both these senses He is viSvam.

2   vishNuH (The all-pervading)

	PB:	vishNu derives from root viS meaning 'pervades'. As a vibhava 
		avatAra, He pervades or enters the vibhUtis of cit and achit.
		The sruti declares- "O keSava, because You have made Your entry
		into cetanas and acetanas, You bear the name vishNu". The names 
		'viSwam' and 'vishNu', respectively, indicate fullness 
		(pUrNatva) and 'all-pervasion' and are hence significant.

	SA:	It is most appropriate that the name vishNu is mentioned after 
		viSwam. When the question arises who is it that has become 
		viSwam, the All, the answer is 'it is vishNu'. As He pervades 
		everything, vevshTi, He is called vishNu. The name vishNu is
		derived from the root 'viS' (indicating presence everywhere)
		combined with the suffix nuk.  vishNu purAna (3.1.45) says:
		"The power of that Supreme Being has entered within the 
		universe.  The root viS means 'enter into'". Rgveda (2.2.26)
		advocates adoration of vishNu for spiritual enlightenment:
		"O hymnists! Put an end to your recurring births by attaining
		the real knowledge of that Ancient Being who is eternal and 
		true. Understanding these names of vishNu, repeat them always.
		Let other people repeat or not repeat Thys holy names; we, 
		O vishNu, shall adore thy charming effulgence".

3   vashaT-kAraH (He for whom vashaT is offered in yaj~nas)

	PB:	vashaT-kAraH is derived from the root 'vaS'. Everything is
		'vaS' (subject) to Him. The whole universe, movable and 
		immovable, is under His sway.  Brihadharanyaka says "He is 
		the controller and ruler of all". "This universe is under 
		his control". vAsudeva is all.  We must surrender to Him, who 
		fills the cosmos, as an oblation and perform Atmayaj~na - 
		a sacrifice of one's self. The yaj~na aspect of God as a 
		diety to whom surrender of one's own AtmA is made by the 
		jIvas is referred to here.  Gita (IV-24) stresses arpaNa of
		every action to Him by stating "To Him, the offering is
		brahmaN (God), the oblation is God; and it is God that offers 
		it to the fire of God. Thus does he realize God in his 
		undertakings and he reaches Him alone".

	SA:	He in respect of whom vashaT is performed in yaj~nas. vashaT
		is an exclamation uttered by the hotR priest in a yaj~na at
		the end of a sacrificial verse, hearing which the adhvaryu 
		priest casts the oblation for the diety in the fire. As vashaT
		thus invariably precedes the oblation, which is the chief rite
		of a yaj~na, yaj~na itself can be called vashaT-kAraH. And 
		"yaj~na is indeed vishNu" (in Tai.Sam.1.7.4): "yajno vai 
		vishNuH".

4   bhUta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuH (The Lord of the past, future and the present)

	PB:	Because everything is in God's control (vaS) as indicated by 
		previous names 'vashaT-kAraH', He is the Lord or Master(prabhu)
		of all. The Sastras proclaim:
		"(He who is) the Lord of the Universe",
		"The Lord of Lords"  (Sweta),
		"Kesava, the destroyer of Kesi is the Lord of all present, past
		and the future".

	SA:	His greatness consists in His having an absolute existence, 
		unassociated with any time. As He is beyond the sway of time,
		He is eternal being, and thus His majesty is undecaying. He is,
		therefore, the real prabhu- the Lord.

5   bhUtakRt (The creator and destroyer of all existences in the universe)

	PB:	Names 5 to 9 refer to the craetion of the Universe by the Lord
		and show His ownership and sovereignty. All beings are created 
		by Him of His own accord.  Sruthis say:
		"All these have been verily created by brahmaN (bhagavan)",
		"From Him all beings are born".

	SA:	Assuming rajoguNa, He as brahmA, is the creator of all beings. 
		kRt can also be interpreted as kRntana or destruction. The 
		name can also mean one who, as rudra, destroys the worlds,
		assuming the guNa of tamas.

6   bhUbhRt (The governs/sustainer of all beings)

	PB:	He supports and protects all beings. 
		"He bore the earth", "The indestructable Lord Bears" (Gita),
		"He bears the universe and He is the navel of the earth".

	SA:	Assuming sattva guNa, He sustains the worlds.

7   bhAvaH (The pure/absolute existence)

	PB:	Like a peacock with its expanded feathers, He exists possessed 
		of all the riches mentioned already and to be mentioned 
		hereafter. Since everything is His attribute (prakAra), and 
		He as the substratum has them all in Him, they are delineated 
		as His riches or glories (vibhUtis).  BhAgavata says:
		"What is that which is not made vastu by kRshNa? What is there
		which is vastu without kRshNa?"

	SA:	It can also mean one who manifests Himself as the universe.
		It is not the question of His creating the cosmos from outside
		as a potter makes a pot. He makes Himself a vital part of 
		prapa~nca. He is the real and true sat (existence) and He
		fills the universe with His own property of existence and
		reality. Without Him as the basis, nothing can have any 
		reality. 'bhAvaH' may also be interpreted as becoming. He is 
		not only the instrumental cause but also the material cause.

8   bhUtAtmA (The Soul/Self/essence of all beings)

	PB:	The state of all being the possessions of bhagavan and His 
		being the possessor is particularized by saying that they are 
		His body and He their soul. He is the Soul of all beings. 
		Vedas and purANAs declare:
		"All this is indeed the body of Hari",
		"This (bhagvan) is indeed the inner soul of all beings",
		"The entire Universe is thy body",
		"He who is in the AtmA".

	SA:	He is the indweller (antaryAmin) of all objects individually 
		and collectively. "esha ta atm'AntaryAmy amRtaH"- this Thy 
		AtmA is the inner pervader and immortal (BrU.3.7.3.22).

9   bhUta-bhAvanaH (The generator/nourisher of all beings)

	PB:	He is bhUta-bhAvanaH because He makes all beings grow by 
		bestowing on them things that sustain, nourish and contibute
		to their enjoyment (just like parents). In GItA, arjuna 
		addresses srI kRshNa thus: 
		'bhUtabhAvana bhUteSa devadeva jagatpaye' (GItA 10.15).
		Srutis say:
		"He is the sustainer of the Universe and also the Lord of the 
		Universe",
		"He is the Protector of beings".
		Thus, His Mastery (Seshitva) has been established by the Virtue
		of His being the Creator, Sustainer and Protector.

	SA:	He who originates and develops all Elements. Gives same 
		meaning as PB. 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(sl-2)	pUtAtmA paramAtmA ca muktAnAm paramA gatiH
	avyayaH purushaH sAkshI kshetraj~no'kshara eva ca

10   pUtAtmA (The Pure Self/Soul)

	PB:	Though bhagavan is the Soul of all objects, unlike the 
		individual souls He is remains Pure. He is not affected 
		by the defects of the Sentient and non-sentient objects 
		which are His body. Though the contact with the body is 
		similar to both ParamAtmA and jIvAtmA, only the lower 
		(individual) soul reaps the fruits of his actions and is 
		subject to sufferings. Sruthi says: 
		"Work does not bind Me nor I have any desire for work" 
								(gItA 4.18),
		"nAradA! Look at the superiority and greatness of the Lord
		(paramAtmA), who is never tainted by actions, good or bad".
								(bharata sam)
		The analogy, 'when a guard whips a criminal, the contact 
		with the whip is same for both of them. However, only the 
		criminal experiences pain from whipping, not the guard', 
		illustrates this.

	SA:	One whose nature is purity or one who is purity and the 
		essence of all things. Though within the body and ensouling 
		it, He is unsullied and pure. SveU.6.11 says:
		"kevalo nirguNaS ca - He is non-dual being untouched by 
		the guNAs". The ourusha only assumes a relation with the guNas 
		of prakRti, but His essential nature is not affected by it. 
		So He is ever pure.
		
11   paramAtmA (The Supreme Self/Soul)

	PB:	Unlike all beings which have Him as their soul, He does not 
		have any one as His AtmA. 'Param' He who has no other above 
		Him, or He is Supreme. 
		"There is nothing wharever greater than Myself" (gItA7.7),
		"There is no higher nectar than this Universal form" 
							  (vishNu purANA)

	SA:	He who is the supreme one and the Atman. He is beyond the
		cause and effect relationship, and He is by nature ever free
		pure and absolute consciousness.
		
12   muktAnAm paramAgatiH (The highest goal of the liberated ones (muktAs) )

	PB:	Thus He is the supreme object to be attained by all beings
		(who are His subjects). muktAH are those who are freed freed
		completely and without any remanants from all the coverings 
		caused by contact with prakRti (samsArA - birth/death cycle)
		such as ignorance, fruits of action etc.
		"Giving up name and form"                (MundU.), 
		"The knot binding the heart is cut"      (MundU.),
		"The soul realizing brahmaN is freed from merits and sins
		and is finally liberated from all bonds" (SwetaU.),
		"They cross this samsArA"                (gItA7.14)

		'muktAnAm' used in plural makes it clear that freed souls are 
		many and different from one another. This indicates the 
		difference between the mukta and brahmaN and to point out the 
		plurality of the AtmAs and the mukti. Srutis say:
		"All are freed through that great immortal Being" (MunU.),
		"They are individuals endowed with greatness and reach Him"
		"They have attained veri-similitude with me", "They reach ME"
								  (gItA)

		Thus, there is difference between these souls and the Lord 
		as the latter is the great witness and the refuge of the 
		released souls.

		The use of the adjective paramA before gati points out that
		some of the muktAs attain another goal of a lower order 
		(kaivalyA). This is a state in which the soul is released from
		old age, death etc. It is in between samsArA (lIlavibhuthi)
		and paramapada (nityavibhuti).

	SA:	The highest goal of the liberated ones (muktas). For one who
		attains to Him, there is neither rebirth nor attaining to any 
		thing higher, there being nothing higher than Him (gItA).
		
13   avyayaH 

	PB:	The 12th name 'muktAnAm paramAgatiH' is explained by the five
		names following it. avyayaH is derived from the sense that 
		these muktas, having crossed the samsAric ocean and attained 
		His lotus-feet, will not sent back from Him. 
		Chandogya says: "Those who have been redeemed by Him do not 
		return to this world of men", "They do not go back-they do 
		not go back".

	SA:	One for whom there is no decay. Sruti says: 
		"ajaro'maro'vyayaH - unaging, undying and undecaying". This
		shows He is unconditioned and totally changeless.
		
14   purushaH 

	PB:	Derived in terms of one who gives in plenty (bahu), the root
		sanoti (in 'puru bahu sanotIti') means giving charity. Thus,
		bhagavan allows the muktAs to enjoy His kalyANa guNAs, which 
		are innumerable and beyond the scope of complete conception 
		and expression, and to derive Ananda in boundless measure.

	SA:	One who abides in the body or pura. mahAbhArata (SAnti 21.37)
		says: "The great being resides in and pervades the mansion 
		of the body, having all features described before and 
		provided with nine gateways; because of this He is called 
		purushaH";
		OR by interpreting the word as purA AsIt, the word meaning 
		'one who existed always';
		OR it can mean one who is pUrNa, perfect;
		OR one who makes all things pUrita, i.e. filled by pervading 
		them.
		mahAbhArata (udyoga7.11) says: "pUraNAt sadanAt ca'iva 
		tato'sau purushottamaH - He is called purushottama because He
		infills everything and sustains them all".

15   sAkshI

	PB:	He who sees them all directly. Bhagavan is known as sAkshI 
		(witness) because He directly sees the muktAs enjoy the Bliss 
		He has bestowed and is also delighted seeing them full of joy.

	SA:	One who witnesses everything, without any aid/instrument/
		organ, by virtue of His inherent nature alone. sAkshI also 
		suggests that although in the body along with the jIva, He 
		is only an uninvolved onlooker.

16   kshetraj~naH 

	PB:	Knower of a kshetra (region/field), i.e. paramapada, beyond 
		matter for the muktas to live in and enjoy Himself, unaffected 
		by prakRti. The kshetra is so-called because of its being
		the field that raises the crop of His abundant enjoyment.

	SA:	The knower of the field or body. 
		"kshetraj~nam cA'pi mAm viddhi - know Me to be the knower of
		the kshetra or the field (body)" (gItA),
		"These bodies are the fields, in which seeds consisting of 
		man's good and bad acts yield their fruits as enjoyments and 
		suffereings. As the dwelling spirit is the Knower of all 
		these, He is called kshetraj~na" (SAnti parva 351.6).

17   aksharaH 

	PB:	The undecaying. He is an undiminished and inexhaustible store
		of honeyed bliss. However much enjoyed by the muktas, He 
		becomes only more and more enjoyable (never less).

	SA:	He who is without destruction i.e. the Supreme Spirit. The
		word is formed by adding the suffix sara at the end of the 
		root 'aS'. eva and ca in the text show respectively that
		according to the mahavAkyA "tat tvam asi", kshetraj~na 
		and aksharaH are identical metaphysically and their 
		difference is relevant only relatively.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(sl-3)	yogo yogavidAm netA pradhAna-purusheSvaraH
	nArasimha-vapuH srImAn keSavaH purushottamaH

18   yogaH 

	PB:	The union; the name suggests that He is the sole and natural 
		upAya (means) for release/salvation. The word yoga derives 
		from the verb 'yujyate', meaning 'with whose help the goal 
		is attained'. He is the direct cause of release and nothing 
		else. gItA says: "aham tvA sarvapApebhyo mokshaIshyAmi - I 
		shall liberate you from all sins".

	SA:	One attainable through Yoga or "The contemplation of the
		unity of the jivAtmA and the paramAtmA, with the organs of 
		knowledge and the mind withheld". He Himself is the sAdhana,
		Yoga means sAdhana for brahmic union. It is also union.
		
19   yogavidAm netA 

	PB:	He who leads to fruition the efforts of even yogis who 
		practise other means. He leads them until the fruit is 
		acheived.
		"Out of compassion for them do I dwell in their hearts and
		dispels the darkness born of ignorance by shining the lamp
		of wisdom" (gItA 10.12),
		"When He is pleased they get immortality through Him" (SwetU)

	SA:	He very lovingly helps Yogavids (practisioners of Yoga). 
		gItA (9.22) says: 
		"teshAm nityAbhiyuktAnAm yogakshemam vahAmy aham - Of those 
		who are ever united with Me in communion, I bear their 
		Yoga-kshema- preservation of their worldly and spiritual 
		interests".
		
20   pradhAna-purusheSvaraH 

	PB:	The Lord of the primordial matter and purushas (jIvas). He 
		is in every way the controller of prakRthi, purushas and the 
		qualities as well. On account of His mAyA, He keeps the jIvas 
		under samsAric fetters. Those who attain Him are freed and
		granted moksha. BrahmasUtra says:
		"Because of His sankalpa the soul's true state is clouded
		and He, indeed is the Cause of bondage and release therefrom".

	SA:	Master of 'pradhAna' ( prakRti and mAyA) as well as 'purusha'
		(jIva).
		
21   nArasimha-vapuH 

	PB:	He came down as nRsimha avatAra to save one of his greatest
		bhaktiyogi prahlAda. Thus the name also indicates the removal 
		of impediments to devotion to Him. This form of Him combines 
		man and lion, assumed instantaneously and shows He dwells in
		everything and is all-pervading.

	SA:	One in whom the bodies of a man and a lion are combined; 
		refers to His avatAra as man-lion (nRsimha).
		
22   srImAn 

	PB:	He of a lovely form / United to Lakshmi. Though this form is 
		unique with mismatched head and body, He is srImAn as it is
		very attractive and possess beauty, effulgence and other 
		qualities. Those who had seen this would not have been 
		attracted by appearance of only men or lions, however 
		beautiful they might have been.  

	SA:	Goddess Sri (Lakshmi) eternally dwells on His chest. Hence He
		is also called LakshmInRasimha. As an aside, Sankara composed
		'karAvalamba stotra ' on Lord LakshmInRasimha.
		
23   keSavaH 

	PB:	This substantiates His possession of such singular qualities 
		as overlordship, beauty etc., that are all His own. He is
		known as keSavaH because of his enchantingly lovely, dark 
		and curly locks of hair. This aspect has been widely referred
		to by sri satakopa and other Alwars.

	SA:	Three interpretations. One whose keSa or locks are beautiful.
		OR one who is himself three- kaH (BrahmA), aH (vishNu) and 
		ISA (Siva).
		OR one who destroyed asura keSi in kRshNAvatAra.
		
24   purushottamaH 

	PB:	The Supreme amongst purushas (individual souls); Higher than 
		all. gIta (15.18) says:
		"As I surpass the perishable and as I am higher than even 
		the imperishable, I am celebrated in the world and in the 
		vedas as the Supreme Being (purushottama)".

	SA:	The Greatest among all puruSAs (spirits) vide gIta (15.18).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(sl-4)	sarvaH SarvaH SivaH sthANur bhutAdir nidhir avyayaH
	sambhavo bhAvano bhartA prabhavaH prabhur ISvaraH

25   sarvaH 

	PB:	He who is all. According to Niruktha derivation, "As He is
		the cause of creation and dissolution  of prakRti (achethana)
		purusha (chethana) and as He simultaneously and always 
		understands everything, He is known as sarva (All)". Vedas 
		say:
		"All things are connected to Him as gems in a thread" 
		and declares:
		"He is verily all this",
		"You pervade all; therefor you are sarva".
		arjuna addresses bhagavan in gItA (11.40), seeing viSwarUpa:
		"Thou dost pervade all and therefore Thou art All".
		Also cites the mahAbhArata verse cited by SA.		

	SA:	The omniscient source of all existence. Mahabharata(Ud.70.11)
		says: "As He is the source of all things gross and subtle, and
		as He knows all things at all times He is called sarva".
		
26   SarvaH 

	PB:	The remover;  He removes/destroys the aSubham or evils (sins, 
		miseries etc.) of all objects that are His body.

	SA:	Destroyer (of the whole Universe at the time of pralaya 
		or cosmic dissolution)

27   SivaH 

	PB:	He who confers Subham (auspiciousness)/The Pure. Etymologically 
		it means: "The eternal, auspiciousness and never failing". 
		This is a quality name of vishNu. Srutis say:
		"mangalAnAm hariH - Hari is the seat of auspiciousness",
		"mangalyam mangalam vishNuH - vishNu is auspiciousness 
		(mangalam) embodied",

	SA:	The Pure one. For He is not affected by the three guNAs of 
		prakRti. The kaivalyaU (1.8) says: "sa brahmA sa SivaH - He is 
		both brahmA and Siva". This shows the non-difference between 
		Siva and vishNu. In fact it is vishNu Himself that is exhalted 
		by praise and worship of Siva.

28   sthANuH 

	PB:	He who is steady/firm (in blessing others). The fruit of 
		contact with Bhagavan does not stop with the mere destruction
		of some specific sin as ordinary acts of expiation does (like  
		in the case of sacrifices or from worshiping minor dieties).
		It not only completely destroy the inauspiciousness in a 
		devotee, but also fulfills all His desires in many ways. In 
		fact, it does not stop with this (but is ready to grant more).
		"MadhusUdhana, when meditated upon , bestows on the devotee
		unasked, that which is diffcult to realize, indeed impossible
		to obtain (by his own exertion) and which is incomprehensible
		to the mind".

	SA:	One who is steady, immovable and changeless.

29   bhutAdiH 

	PB:	He Who is eagerly sought after by all all beings (bhUtAs) 
		(because He is most desirable). The word has got the affix
		Ki, like sarvAdhi, nidhi etc. Vide- "What have we got to do 
		with progeny, if we do not have Him as our Master".

	SA:	The Source of all elements or existing things.

30   nidhiravyayaH

	PB:	The inexhaustable/indestructable treasure. avyaya is an 
		adjective qualifying nidhi and not an independent name of 
		vishNu. avyaya signifies that He, the Treasure (nidhi) does
		not diminish, even to the minutest extent, however much/often 
		used. "He is like a treasure of gold hidden in the bowels of 
		the earth (i.e. gold mine)" (Chandogya).

	SA:	The changeless and indestructable Being in whom the whole 
		Universe becomes merged and remains in seminal condition at 
		the time of pralaya.

31   sambhavaH 

	PB:	He who manifests Himself. Though ordinarily hidden like a 
		treasure, He shows Himself (by His own free will) to His 
		devotees (who long for Him). This is exemplified by his all 
		round appearance, everywhere and at all times as in His rAmA, 
		kRshNa and other avatArAs. Vide-
		"I appeared in many births before",
		"When ever dharma declines, I appear in the world (yuga after 	
		yuga)" (gItA 4.8).

	SA:	One born out of His own will as incarnation, vide (gItA 4.8).

32   bhAvanaH 

	PB:	Savior. He is so called because, having shown Himself to His 
		devotees, He regenerates the universe by eradicating evils.
		"For the protection of the good (do I take birth)"

	SA:	One who generates the fruits of karmas of all jIvAs for them 
		to enjoy. brahma sUtra (3.2.28) says:
		"phalamataH upatteH - Lord bestows the fruits of all actions 
		of the jIvas"

33   bhartA 

	PB:	Supporter / He nourishes and develops all by giving Himself up
		to His devotees as though doing like that is His nature.

	SA:	One who supports the universe as its substratum.

34   prabhavaH 

	PB:	He is of Exhalted/Glorious birth. His descent is not like that 
		of jIvAs.Every descent taken by Him of His own will is of 
		paramount importance. He takes forms that are divine and not 
		material. Vide-
		"He is unborn",
		"The great and the wise know His birth well",
		"Whoever understands correctly My birth and action as Divine 
		knows no rebirth" (gItA) 

	SA:	One from whom all the great elements are born. Or one who has
		exhalted births as incarnations

35   prabhuH 

	PB:	He who is all powerful(though born in the guise of a man etc.)
		He has the ability to grant mokshas and other fruits to mortals
		(ex: kRshNa received SiSupAlA's soul after slaying him)

	SA:	One who is all powerful and is adept in all rites.

36   ISvaraH 

	PB:	The supreme ruler. In avatArAs, He retains fully His cosmic 
		supremacy. He is even greater in His incarnations. Vide gItA:
		"The are ignorant of my Supreme power which persists even 
		when I have taken a human body",
		"Even when I take birth I am born keeping the power of 
		overlordship"

	SA:	One who has unlimited lordiness or power over all things.
		"eSa sarveSvaraH - He is the Lord of All" (MandukyaU 6).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
(sl-5)	swayambhUH Sambhur AdityaH pushkarAksho mahA-svanaH
	anAdi-nidhano dhAtA vidhAtA dhAtur uttamaH

37   swayambhUH 

	PB:	What is the source of all this greatness? He is swayambhUH;
		One who manifests Himself, of His own free will, for the
		purpose of His sport (lIlA). Although He may have the 
		exterior of a deva or a man, but inwardly retains His prakRti
		(His essential nature) which is exclusively His own and is of
		pure satwa. His birth is not due to karma nor dictated by some
		other God like brahms. Vide gItA-
		"swayambu is the highest brahman to the ever released",
		"Keeping my own prakRti Iam born through my sankalpa (will)".

	SA:	One who exists by Himself, uncaused by any other. Says 
		manu (1.7): "He manifested Himself". He is so called because 
		He existed before everything, and over everything. He is the 
		Supreme.

38   SambhuH 

	PB:	The Source of Happiness. He is 'Sambhu' because He gives 
		'Sam' (Happiness) to all by manifesting His own beauty, easy
		availability and other qualities. Vide -
		"visvAksham visvasambhuvam - He visualizes all things 
		directly, He is the cause of Bliss for all",
		"He ravished the eyes and mind of men by His comeliness,
		magnanimity and other virtues" (rAmAyaNa)
		"srI rAma had a countenance lovely as a moon and was pleasing
		to the sight".

	SA:	One who bestows good (on devotees).

39   AdityaH 

	PB:	The person residing in the Sun (sUryamaNDala). Vide-
		"He, is only the same (Diety) who is seen in the heart of a
		human being and who is seen in the Sun".

	SA:	The golden-hued purusha in the suryamaNDala. gItA (10.21):
		"Among the Adityas I am vishNu"; (there are 12 Adityas).
		Or it may imply the meaning that just as one sun reflects as
		many water receptacles, it is the One Soul that is reflected
		in various bodies and appears as many. Hence the comparison.

40   pushkarAkshaH 

	PB:	The lotus-eyed. exclusively signifies His possession of all
		riches in the Universe (i.e. its sole ruler).

	SA:	Lotus-eyed.

41   mahAsvanaH 

	PB:	He of mahAn (sacred/venerable) svanaH (sound). "His name 
		and form have sound as the basis. He is verily, vedas. He is 
		the brilliant purusha in the middle of the Sun".
		Or He is the Supreme object of worship since He is signified 
		by the sAvitri (gAyatri mantra).

	SA:	From whom comes the great sound- the vedas. Vide-
		"the Rg-veda and the yajur-veda are the breath of that great 
		being" (BRU.2.4.10).

42   anAdi-nidhanH 

	PB:	One without beginning or end. The form of this purusha is
		not made up of matter but is wholly divine. There is no birth 
		or death for any of His avatAr forms. There is only an entry 
		and an exit of that form (like an actor on the stage). His 
		form always shines with splendor and beauty.

	SA:	The one existence that has neither birth nor death.

43   dhAtaH 

	PB:	The creator. This suggests vishNu is the prime cause and is 
		distinguishable from brahma. gItaA (14.3) says:
		"He puts the seed into the womb of prakRti (mahat brahman),
		from which the cosmos sprouts"; aniruddha sows the seed.

	SA:	One who is the support of the universe.

44   vidhAtA 

	PB:	The producer/dispenser. He develops the seed in the womb of
		prakRti and makes it appear (as hiraNyagarbha). Vide-
		"He saw brahma being born",
		"He who creates brahma at first",
		"From Him, virAt (brahma) was born".

	SA:	He who generates karmas and their fruits.

45   dhAturuttamaH 

	PB:	Best of Creators/Far Superior to brahma. Vide-
		"nArAyaNa is the Supreme tattva (reality)",
		A discussion between brahma and rudra clearly states:
		"nArAyaNa is the highest divinity and the four-faced brahma
		was born of Him".

	SA:	The ultimate support of everything. Or He being caitanya or
		Pure Consciousness, is superior to all other dhAtus 
		(substances). Or it can be taken as two different names:
		He is 'dhAtu' because He bears everything, and He is also
		uttama, the greatest of all beings.
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(sl-6)	aprameyo hRshIkeSaH padma-nAbho'mara-prabhuH
	viSva-karmA manustvashTA sthavishThaH sthaviro dhruvaH

46   aprameyaH 

	PB:	The immeasurable. He is beyond the reach of all the pramANas
		including SAstra and Sabda. He is even beyond the sense- 
		organs of brahma and other Gods. Vide-
		"This bhagavan brahma does not know the supreme purusha",
		Brahma himself declares, 
		"We do not verilt know the beginning, middle and end of the 
		birthless Supreme Creator (vishNu) whose forms all things are.
		We neither know the essential nature of the Supreme Ruler, 
		nor His sublime Greatness, nor His power".

	SA:	One who is not measurable or understandable by any of the
		accepted means of knowledge like sense perception, inference
		etc. Even the scriptures cannot reveal Him DIRECTLY. 
		scriptures only eliminate the appearance of the Universe 
		(which stands in the way of intuiting Him).
		Or not being an object but only the ultimate witness or
		knower, He is beyond the purview of all means of knowledge,
		which can reveal only things in the objective world. 
47   hRshIkeSaH 

	PB:	He is hRshIkeSa because He is the Cotroller of the indriyas
		(the sense and sense organs). Vide Harivamsa:
		"They say that  hRshIkas are sense-organs. Since you are 
		their controller, you are known as hRshIkeSaH. Among the 
		Gods, vishNu is known as keSava".
		"He is hRshIkeSa because of joy (harsha), happiness(saukhya)
		and effortless rulership (sukha-aisvarya)". 
		i.e. (hRshI + ka + isa).

	SA:	The Master of senses (hRshIkas); or He under whose control 
		the senses subsist. Another interpretation is He whose
		keSa (hair) consisting of the rays of the Sun and the Moon,
		gives joy (harsha) to the world. Vide-
		"the rays of the Sun, which is harikeSaH (the hair of Hari)"

48   padmanAbhaH 

    PB and SA:	He who has a lotus in the navel. This substantiates what has
		been said before: He is the cause of brahma (the lotus-born).
		"The whole Universe is placed in the navel of that unborn".

49   Amara-prabhuH 

	PB:	Lord of all Gods. He effects creation etc. by bestowing on
		the Gods authority (and directs them) for carrying them out. 
		In srI rAmAyaNa brahma says to rAmA:
		"Lying on the waters of the great ocean You created me 
		long ago".

	SA:	The Master of the devas or the amaras (the deathless ones).

50   viSvakarmA 

	PB:	He who is the agent of all actions(in regard to the Universe)
		The entire work (visvam karma) related to the Universe, both
		before and after the creation of brahma is His alone. Vide-
		"He does all the work relating to the Universe",
		"Him the ourusha, the Creator of the Universe, the Supreme
		God, the Unborn, All-pervading".

	SA:	He whose karma (work) has resulted in all that exists 
		(viSvam). Or He whose power of creation is unique and
		wonderful.

51   manuH 

	PB:	He who wills. By means of sankalpa (thinking/willing), He
		Creates everything. Vide-
		"That Supreme desired that He should create a world which
		was not in existence before".
		"Creation is based on the infallible wish of the Supreme, and
		requires no analogy for support".

	SA:	He who thinks. The BrU.(3.7-23):
		"nAnyo'tosti mantA- There is no thinker other than He".
		Or He is called manu, because He manifests in form of
		mantra and of manu (the Patriach).

52   tvashTA 

	PB:	The Divine Chiseller/Carpenter who constructed the Universe.
		He fashioned the Universe by giving names and forms. Vide-
		"sarvANi rUpANi vicitya dhIraH"

	SA:	He who makes all beings shrunken (tanUkaraNa) at the time of
		pralaya (cosmic dissolution).

53   sthavishThaH 

	PB:	He who is exceedingly immense. Vide-
		"There is no limit to my expansiveness" (gItA),
		"All Universe is the expansion of vishNu Who is All".
	SA:	He who excels in everything in bulk or substantiality.

54   sthaviraH-dhruvaH 

	PB:	Takes it as two names: 'sthaviraH' and 'dhruvaH'
		sthaviraH means He who is existent at all times. Though the 
		original cause of all, He is different from worldly causes
		like clay etc. Though for His lIla (creation of world etc.)
		he accepts help of time, He is not bound by it. This shows 
		that His nature is entirelly different from that of milk 
		which depends on Time to get transformed into curd.
		"He (bhagavan) makes there (srI vaikunta) Time and the latter 
		has no power over Him".

		He is dhruvaH, because his essential nature is changeless.
		Though there are infinite transformations, He is immutable.
		Vide- "ajayya (invincible), Saswatha (eternal) and 
		dhruva (unchanging)".

	SA:	Eternal one, being the most ancient. The name and 
		qualification is taken as a single phrase.

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S. G. Srinivasan                email : sgsrini@u.washington.edu
Graduate Student
Dept. Of Mater. Sci. & Engg.
University Of Washington        Phone : (206)-632-1083 (H)
Seattle, WA 98195                       (206)-685-3851 (W)
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