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Pramathi Samvathsara Sri Rama Navami series : Part I, Saint Thyagaraja's Dhivya Naama and Uthsava SampradhAya Krithis

From: Sadagopan (sgopan_at_computer.net)
Date: Wed Mar 29 2000 - 13:34:27 PST

Dear BhakthAs :
This posting seems to have been lost 
in transmission . This was posted
on March 25 , the time that Sri Mani
Varadarajan indicated that there might have 
been some system problems in deliverey of 
the digest . Hence I am retransmitting it.

Best Wishes for a joyous Sri Rama Navami Celebrations,
V.Sadagopan 


>Dear BhakthAs :
>
>Saint ThyagarAjA's " dhaasya-Vaatsalya Bhakthi 
>Bhaava VisEsham " has been cited as the inspiring source 
>of his sacred krithis ; these krithis are considered as
>" the puNya theertham associated with the RaamAbhishEkam "
>that he performed during every moment of his earthly life. 
>
>He was a garbha-BhaagavathA and is considered as the amsam 
>of Sage VaalmikI , who blessed us with the magnificent
>IthihAsam , Srimath RaamAyaNam .No wonder that Saint 
>ThyagaraajA became a Raama chaithanyA and performed 
>Aaraadhanam with dhivya Naama kusumams for 
>Sri Raamachandran with such ardour .
>
>The Exemplary Life led by Saint ThyagarAjA
>*******************************************
>
>He led a simple life and had parama vairAgyam . 
>He spurned wealth and asked his mind " Nidhi chAla
>sukamA? Raamuni sannidhi sEva sukamA ? " and answered
>decisivly that the nithya , niravadhya kaimkaryam to
>Sri Raaman was the preferred sukham for him . In his 
>Yamunaa-KalyANi krithi , " NaarAyaNa Hari , NaarAyaNa Hari ",
>he confessed to Sriman Raama NaarAyaNan : 
>
>"NarAyaNa Hari ! nasvaramaina dhanAsvamulanu nE 
>vishvasincha bhUjEsavara Hari Hari , kOtisulagani 
>saaDilEni palku BhODi nOsagi mummADiki vEDanu ,
>aasa pishAchAvEshamu galugu dhanEsula gaachEDu dEsamu 
>nElanu  " 
>
>(Meaning): " Oh Jaanaki RamaNA ! I consider perishable
>(material) wealth in the form of money , cattle as worthless.
>I shall certainly not approach  rich men and beg them 
>for wealth through krithis praising them .I shall not
>go near places frequented by greedy men , who are 
>possessed by the devils of desire and attachment to
>material things ". 
>
>With parama vairAghyam , Saint ThyagarAjA stayed away
>from royal courts and felt uncomfortable about the status
>of VidvAns , who eked a livelihood from musical services
>to the wealthy ones. He reminds us in this context of 
>Swamy Desikan's memorable decalaration in his VairAghya 
>Panchakam :
>
>" vayam vaachA mahIsvarAn thruNamapi na YaachAmahE "
>
>(meaning): We shall never ever beg even for a blade
>of grass from the kings (wealthy ones)". He concluded like 
>Swamy Desikan that the great wealth , Sriman NaaraayaNan 
>that gladdens the hearts of BhaagavathAs is the eternal,
>ever-lasting wealth . Swamy Desikan's words are:
>
>" Dhananjaya Vivardhanam dhanam udhUDa Govardhanam
>  susaadhanam  aBhAdhanam sumanasAm samArAdhanam "
>
>Like Swamy Desikan , Saint ThyagarAjA conducted 
>unchivrutthi every day and lived on the alms that
>the citizens of ThiruvaayARu gave him. He presented 
>it to Sri RaamachandrA , performed AarAdhanam for Him
>and partook of the naivEdhyam and spent his day and night
>singing about the glories of his Raama NaarAyaNan .
>
>The origin of the Dhivya NaamA Krithis 
>***************************************
>
>During his unchivrutthi around the streets of this river town,
>the Saint used to sing with ThamburA in one hand and 
>chapLa kattais on the other hand the dhivya naamAs of 
>his AarAdhana moorthy , Sri Raamachandran . Out poured 
>moving krithis that were composed on the spot with 
>great Bhakthi . These krithis are known as dhivya naama
>krithis and had many small charaNams and have great 
>bhakthi bhAvam .
>
>The Raagams used in the Dhivya Naama  krithis
>**********************************************
>Rakthi Raagams , Ghana Raagams,upAnga-BhAshAnga raagams , 
>sampUrNa, varja-vakra and chAyalaka raagams 
>took their turns to be adorned in his free-flowing
>Saahithyams and to take their immortal place as dhivya-
>Naama Krithis emanating from the bard. The musical genius 
>of Saint ThyagarAjA blending perfectly with his great
>Bhakthi gave us a body of dhivya naama krithis that
>have very few parallels in Bhakthi literature .
>
>Typical raagaas used by the Saint in composiiton of these
>dhivya naam krithis are: Aananda Bhairavi, Kaapi, BhouLi, 
>SaavEri, Bhairavi, AsAvEri, Thodi, MadhyamAvathi , 
>PunnagavarAli , GowLipanthu and NaadhanAmakriya,
>ReethigowLai and some times even MukhAri and rare
>raagams like KalakaNTi.
>
>Typical Features of a Dhivya Naama Krithi
>******************************************
>These dhivya Naama krithis have many , short charaNams
>that permitted singing with manOdharam , while moving 
>from house to house receiving bikshai. Usually , these
>krithis do not have any anupallavi.The message will be
>like an upadesam .
>
>An Example of a Dhivya Naama krithi in GhouLipanthu raagam
>***********************************************************
>
>Pallavi: Raama Raama KrishNa yanarE raathiri- 
>         pahalumaa Sitha 
>
>( Oh People You will all do well by chanting  
>  the holy names of my SitA Raaman and KrishNaa
>  day and night)
>
>CharaNam 1: ithara maarga soukyamulaku
>            athani hrudhayamE Saakshiyu (Raama Raama--)
>
>( Your heart will be the witness (ssakshi) to
>  the fact that there are no other ways to
>  get happiness and deliverance . " Naanya:
>  panthA ayanAya vidhyathE " is the message of 
>  Purusha Sooktham ).
>
>CharaNam 2: kAnipanulu kOri kOri 
>            karaguchuNDu maanavulu ( Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 3: kuthisathapu maaDalaku
>            uddhuga pOrElEDu janalu (Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 4: sarvasAsthramulanu jdhiva 
>            aasa dhaasulayinavAru (Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 5: yedhuDi paccha jUDalEka
>            hithavu mADalADu Janulu (Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 6: challani vaakulu Baliki
>            svAntha manalamainavAru (Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 7: palukanErcchi yaDukaBhOthE
>            teliviki haaniyainavAru (Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 8: JaathiheenulainavAru
>            JaaNalainaaradhE Saakshi(Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 9: paamu pandhi Gaja pisAcha  
>            paathakAgrEsarulE Saakshi ( Raama Raama)
>
>CharaNam 10:ThyagarAju dhelusukOnna 
>            taaraka mihapara sAdhakamu( Raama Raama)
>
>The beauty of the architecture of the dhivya Naama 
>Krithi and the symmetry of the individual CharaNams
>set in Aathi Taalam is exquisite.There is not an extra
>word in each of the CharaNa Vaakhyams. The refrain is 
>a sweet lilting "Raama Raama KrishNa yanarE ".The meanings
>and the references are deep . 
>
>General Meaning of charaNams 2-10 :
>
>Oh people , You who chase after desires and 
>activities forbidden by ShAsthrAs and revel 
>in them ! You will do well by cbanting 
>the Lord's name day and night !
>
>Oh People , Who wallow  profoundly in demeaning
>talks and who have become helpless slaves to Your
>desires , even if you have gone thru all shAsthrAs!
>You will have salvation by reciting the Lord's 
>names day and night.
>
>Oh People! who are filled with asooyai (jealousy)
>because your neighbor is prosperous and yet are
>pretending to mean well by saying kind words in
>front of them ! You can get relief from all these
>miseries, if you chant the names of my SithA Raaman
>and KrishNan .
>
>Oh people, who talk sweetly , while having poison 
>in your hearts ! You will overcome these harmful
>dispositons , if you chant my Lord's names .
>
>Oh People, who have been formally educated
>to use your speech effectively ! When the time comes to 
>demonstrate your intelligence , you are unable to
>manage your speech and give the right ansewers .
>
>The unassailable fact that low birth is no hindrance 
>to salvation by chanting the Lord's names has been
>proven by many.They are the witnesses to the redemptive
>power of the Lord's names and naama sankIrthanam ,
>which leads up to total self-surrender at the lotus
>feet of our dhivya Dampathis.
>
>Prominent among this assembly of heinous sinners
>are the serpent (Ajakaran), Pig ( MookAsuran), Elephant 
>(MatthakAsuran),the demon /PisAsu( DhunthumAran).
>Their sins melted away ,when they chanted Hari's names.
>
>This path of redemption has been learnt by ThyagarAjA
>as the means to achieve moksham .Raama Naamam is the Taaraka 
>manthram known to Thyagarajan as Iha Para Saadhanam .
>You will do well by reciting the Lord's many names.
>
>We will cover the introduction to the Uthsava SampradhAya
>krithis in the next posting and come back to selected
>examples of dhivya naama and uthsava sampradhAya Krithis
>in subsequent postings.
>
>AdiyEn, Oppiliappan Koil Varadachari Sadagopan
>ThiruviNNagar BrahmOthsava Hanumantha Vaahanam day
>Panguni Kettai ( March 27, 2000 ) 
>
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