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kaNNan and kaliyan

From: Kalyani Krishnamachari (kkrishnamachari_at_lucent.com)
Date: Fri Jun 12 1998 - 19:53:50 PDT

        aNNA svAmiyin amudha mozhi Ayiram -
	2. Twelve similarities between KaNNan and Kaliyan.

Dear bhakti members:

Here is the second excerpt from the above mentioned book compiled by SrI T.
krishNamUrti.  This topic deals with tirumangai AzhvAr, who is also known by
the name kaliyan.  SrI PBA gives 12 comparisons between KaNNan and Kaliyan
and shows that tirumangai AzhvAr shines like Lord Kr*shNa.

SrI PBA gives the following verse (probably his own composition) to bring
out this comparison: 

sUryatvAt sUcitatvAt  apahruti-karaNAt gokuloddhArakatvAt
baddhatvAt SAstra-datvAt paTu-jana-sahayOgAcca 
          lakshmIpatitvAt
nIlatvAt nItimArgacyuti matibhajanAt antataScAvatArAt
SatrutvamSa utpaTatvAt kali-ripu-muni-rAt krishNa tulyO
          vibhAti||

We will look into each of the twelve comparisons in detail in the following
paragraphs:

1. sUryatvAt:

When parASara maharishi talks about kaNNapirAn's tiru avatAram in SrI vishNu
purANam, he calls Him 'bhAnu", which refers to sUrya:

"tatOkhilajagat padmabOdAya acyuta bhAnunA, devakI pUrvasandhyAyAm
AvirbhUtam mahAtmanA"

tirumangai AzhvAr is also called sUrya (divAkara)in Kaliyan's stuti padyam
(author is not specified): 

"kalayAmi kalidvamsam kavim lOkadivAkaram" Thus both kaNNan and kaliyan have
been compared to sUryan (the sun).

2. sUcitatvAt:

sUcitatvAt means that which has been predicted before hand.  Both 
kaNNan's and kaliyan's avatArams had been predicted long before they 
happened.  When devaki and vasudeva were married and kamsan  
(devaki's  brother)  was charioting them, the AkASa vANi declared that the 
eighth child born to devaki will cause his destruction and the saying came true.

In tiruvAimozhi(5-2-1),nammAzhvAr says:  "kaliyum kedum kaNdu koNmin".  This
is interpreted as predicting the appearance of tirumangai AzhvAr, uDaiyavar,
etc. by maNavALa mAmunigaL in AcArya hr*dayam:  

kaliyum kedum kaNDu koNmin - Know ye that kali will be destroyed with the
avatAra-s of the likes of tirumangai AzhwAr , udaiyavar etc.

Thus both the appearance of KaNNan and that of Kaliyan were forecast.
kaNNan destroyed kamsan; kaliyan destroyed kali purushan.

3. apahrutikaraNAt:

kaNNan was well known as a kaLvan  (thief);  kaliyan was also a famed thief.
kaNNan stole butter and the hearts of devotees; kaliyan stole riches to
build the SrI rangam temple gOpura prAhAra mandapam.

4. gOkulOddhArakatvAt:

kaNNan brought glory to gOkulam:  "Ayar pAdikku aNiviLakke",  "Ayar
kulattinil tOnRu maNi viLakkai" - these expressions  clearly prove this
statement.

kaliyan also has done gOkulOddhAraNam.  SrI PBA derives how.  He points out
that we are all ignorant 'paSu-s' - j~nAnena hInah paSubhih samAnah, and the
AzhvAr took birth in our midst to uplift us, and he has done the uddhAraNa
of the gokula with all of us paSu-s in it.  

5. baddhatvAt:

That kaNNan was tied by YaSodA is a well-known fact:  "matturu kadai veNNai
kaLavinil uravidaiyAppuNdu", "kaNNikkuRunkayiRRAl kattuNDAn".  

kaliyan was also jailed by the king, when he spent all the king's money in
bhaghavad ArAdhanam and bhAghavata ArAdhanam.

Thus both kaNNan and Kaliyan were tied.

6. SAstra-datvAt:

Both gave SAstram, which delivers mankind from life. kaNNan gave the great,
enlightening SAstra for cetana-s, namely, the gItA ("arivinAl kuraivillA agal
g~nAlattavar aRiya, neRiyellAm edutturaitta niRai g~nAttorumUrti").

kaliyan gave the  divyaprabandha mahA SAstram - "nenjukkiruL kaDidIpam
aDa~ngA nedumpiRavi na~njukku nalla amudam, tamizh nannUl tuRaigaL 
anjukkilakkiya mAraNa sAram, para Samaya pa~njukkanalin poRi parakAlan 
panuvalgaLe".

Just as kaNNan's SAstram is called  "gItOpanishad", kaliyan's works are
called  "pongu pugazh ma~ngaiyar kOn Inda maRai Ayiram".

7. paTujana sahayOgAt:

kaNNan had many sakhAs - friends;  "tannErAyiram piLLaigaLoDu taLar nadai
ittu varuvAn"; He had many accomplices for His mischiefs.

tirumangai AzhwAr also had friends to carry  out his works; nIr-mel
naDappAn, nizhaLil odunguvAn, tAl-UduvAn, tOlAvazhakkan were all his 
accomplices.

8. LakshmI patitvAt:

kaNNan is none other than nArAyaNamUrti or lakshmIpati.  kaliyan was married
to kumudavalli whose name was originally "tirumAmagaL". When tirumangai 
mannan wanted to marry her, she put several conditions including one which 
required the AzhvAr to feed 1008 brahmins for one year continuously, and 
other conditions which made him an ardent SrIvaishNava, and made her the 
benefactor and protector of SrivaishNava-s.  Thus the AzhvAr ultimately married
kumudavalli, who proved to be a SrIvaishNava lakshmi, and he was the pati of
this 'lakshmi'.  

9. nIlatvAt:

kaNNan was "karundeyvam" and as  the statement "kAnagamellAm tirindu un
kariya tirumEni vADa" shows,  He was the blue-hued azhagan.  tirumangai 
AzhvAr's name was nIlan (" taNDamizh seyda nIlan tanakku" - rAmAnuja nURRantAdi.

10. nIti mArga cyuti bhajanAt:

kaNNan's mischiefs, bordering on violation of all that is considered fair,
has been praised by all the AzhvArs, svAmi deSikan, etc.  ("maccoDu mAligai
ERi mAdargaL tammiDam pukku kaccodu pattai kizuttu kAmbu tugilavai keeRi
niccalum tImaigaL seyvAi".

So also Kaliyan has been praised for his bhagavad kainkaryam even though he
has done things that can be considered outwardly not morally justified.   In
truth, both KaNNan and Kaliyan are exemplary cases of those who were
followers of the nIti or justice.  

When uttara's unborn child was being destroyed by aSvattAmA's brahmAstra,
Lord kr*shNa proclaimed "yadi me brahmacaryam syAt satyanca mayi tishThati,
avyAhatam mamaiSvaryam tena jIvatu bAlakah" - declaring that He never slips
from the path of Truth,  and the child was brought back to life.  In SrI
rangarAja stavam, SrI BhaTTar has pointed out that tirumangai mannan is a
person who has never swerved from the path of justice.

11. antataSca avatArAt:

krishNAvatAram is the last vibhava avatAram (so far).  tirumangai is also
the last of  all the AzhwArs.

12. Satru-dhvamSa utpatatvAt:

kaNNan is a destroyer of foes ("dEnukan pilamban kALiyan ennum
teeppappodugaL adanga uzhakki").  AzhwAr also was known as parakAlan 
("aruL mAri arattamukki adaiyAr seeyam", "oRRalar tangaLai vellum AdalmAvalan 
kalikanRi"); he defeated enemies in other religions.

Thus, SrI PBA establishes 12 similarities between kaNNan and kaliyan.  It
can be noted that some of the comparisons can be applied to any devotee of our
Lord (for example, apahrutikaraNat can be applied to vAlmIkI,  baddhatvAt
can be applied to rAmadAsar, SAstra-datvAt can be applied to nammAzhwar, 
vyAsar etc., Satru-vamSOtpatatvAt to SrI vedAnta deSikar, 
who defeated others' religious outbursts.   However, Kaliyan is unique in
having all these similarities with Lord Kr*shNa, and this is the greatness
that SrI PBA brings out.

"nAmam nAn uyya nAn kaNDu konDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam"

adiyen,
kalyani Krishnamachari