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Re: material pursuits

From: Anand Karalapakkam (anand_at_engr.uconn.edu)
Date: Thu Jul 08 1999 - 16:32:24 PDT

SrI:
SrI Lakshminrusimha ParabrahmaNE namaha
SrI Lakshminrusimha divya pAdukA sEvaka SrIvaN-
SatakOpa SrI nArAyaNa yateendra mahAdESikAya namaha

 Dear Sri Ravi,
 namO nArAyaNA.

 Thanks for your note ; Already, some devotees have kindly 
 responded to this;  adiyEn would like to add few more words 
  on this discussion topic (though not directly related to the 
 actual question raised by Sri Mani) .....

> Sri Ravi wrote :
> In our own visishtadwaita, our beloved udayavar has enunciated that the
> doctrine of visishtadwaita culminates in "naayaka naayaki" bhava,where
> the whole world and its inhabitants are emberumaan's "naayakis" and
> purushotomma,the one and only purusha is srimannarayana.Don't we find that
> sriRama and srimathi sita devi exhibiting eternal love for each other in the
> words of sriman valmiki "bhabuva drihtvaa vaidehi bhartaaram parishasvaje"

  nAyikA bhAvam from a jIvAtmA wrt paramAtmA is the realization
 of the "sarIra-bhAvam". 
  
  vEdAnta teaches us that, jIvAtmA is inseparably 
  united with ParamAtma, as an attribute to its substratum (ie.
  just like the redness of a rose is an inseparable attribute
  of the flower ; ie. the existence of redness on its own, 
  independent of the flower is not there ; it is fully dependent
  on its substratum supporting it for its existence; similarly, 
  jIvAtma does not have its independent existence). vEdAnta 
  gives us insights that a jIvAtma is fully supported and controlled  
  by SrIman nArAyaNA and it exists solely for the pleasure of 
  SrIman nArAyaNA. This sarIra-sarIri bhAvam between the jIvAtma and
  the Brahman leads to the fact that jIvAtma is an inseparable attribute 
  of Brahman. The nAyakA-nAyaki bhAva is used to experience this
  constitutional position putforth in vEdAnta for a jIvAtma in
  relation with the Supreme Lord SrIman nArAyaNA. jIvAtma being 
  an inseparable attribute for SrIman nArAyaNA is technically
  called as "apruthak siddha" visESana(ie. inseparable relationship) to
  Brahman. This apruthak siddha between the jIvAtma and PerumAL arises
  from the sarIra-sarIri bhAva between them (supporter-supported ;
  controller-controlled ; enjoyer -being enjoyed ). Thus, the
  very existence of a jIvAtma is because of the support provided
  by PerumAL (ie. just like how this body perishes if the 
  jIvAtma gets out of it , jIvAtma's existence has no meaning
  without the support given by PerumAL ; This support by PerumAL
  is given through His divyAtma-svaroopa, which is all pervading; 
  PerumAL through His sankalpam does the "controlling" of jIvAtma.
  This is discussed in SwAmi dESikan's "tattva muktA kalApa" ).
  Thus, devotion to PerumAL is a very natural propensity of a 
  jIvAtmA, being grounded in its very intrinsic internal 
  relationship with PerumAL as an inseparable attribute. Thus, a baddha
  jIvAtmA's deep longing to fully comprehend/realize the sarIra-sarIri 
  bhAva / apruthak siddha visESana is very natural and infact, the 
  depth of devotion/intense love for PerumAL,the sarIri,  becomes very 
  natural. This is the very important point to be noted as Dwaitins does 
  not accept jIvAtma as an inseparable attribute of Brahman. For
Dwaitins, 
 jIvAtma is separate and Brahman is separate ; the jIvAtmAs have the 
 external relationship with Brahman as its master ; So a jIvAtma has 
 to know that external relationship and perform devotion.

  nAyaki bhAva is very appropriate to experience the relationship
  between a jIvAtma and PerumAL ( a female having greatest longing 
  for her support viz. lover; she can't exist without him; she fully 
  makes herself being controlled by her lover ; she just accepts to 
  do whatever is pleasing to her husband/lover ; females < esp. of the 
  past, in India > genarally have these qualities inherent in them ; 
  they in general feel very happy in pleasing/serving others; These are 
  used to experience that relationship between jIvAtmA and PerumAL ). 
  Through nAyaki bhAva, one can bring out more of one's emotions etc to 
  get engaged in bhagavad anubhavam and in the realization of one's 
  relationship with PerumAL. There is nothing erotic to feel about; It 
  is  the convertion of a mundane love in materialistic plane to 
  that of spiritual plane and this conversion is glorious in itself, 
  because of the unique anubhava it provides in realizing one's 
  sarIra-sarIri relationship with PerumAL. Its always good to understand 
  the implications of these things from vEdAnta, instead of simply
  getting carried away by "mere" emotion. Our AchAryAs have commented
  _extensively_ on these issues and from "bhagavad vishaya" kAlakshEbam
  one can understand lots and lots more on this issue by the 
  blessings of a SadAchArya.   

  Also, this nAyaki bhAvam is very esoteric in nature and not to
  be considered as something ordinary. Only highly pure and exalted
  souls can experience such divine bhAva, with the fundamental 
  knowledge of the sarIra-sarIri bhAvam. Sexual pleasure gives the
  higest mundane pleasure ; But when one places SrIman nArAyaNa in that
  sthAna of a husband, one becomes completely pure and is not 
  attached to materialistic pleasures. Thus, only such great souls
  can possibly experience nAyaki bhAva in its proper sense. Infact, 
  our AchAryAs have given such an exalted status to the nAyaki bhAva 
  that, they haven't composed such pAsurams/stotrams (only very rare). 
  This is to give the exalted status to the anubhavams of AzhwArs 
  (otherwise x and y will start writing stotrams/pAsurams in nAyaki 
  bhAva, as though they are experiencing it properly). 


> so, the objective of this life is to live,enjoy all the glorious things of
> life as enjoined in the karma kaanda of the vedas,go through all the ashramaas
> the brahmacharya,the gruhasthasrama,the vaanaprastha and finally the sanyasa
> asramaa.

  The objective of life is to serve the divya dampati SrIman nArAyaNA
  uninterruptedly ( "kainkaryam" is the goal). If one has such a desire
  for kainkaryam, there is no other alternative other than to be in 
  SriVaikuNTham, since the design of PerumAL is like that (ie. One can't
  aspire for uninterrupted kainkaryam and simultaneously be in this 
  material world without crossing viraja river; as long as one has this
  prakruti sambandha, uninterrupted kainkaryam/bhagavad anubhavam is not
  possible).  For this purushArtan to get realized, one has to look into
  sAstrAs for the "hitam" (ie. means to attain the purushArtam). sAstrAs
  teaches us that one can attain that uninterrupted kainkaryam/Bhagavad
  anubhavam by completing either Bhakti yOga(upAsana) Or Prapatti Yoga
  (nyAsa vidya / SaraNAgathi). 

  Thus, SwAmi dESikan explains that, if one has Akinchanya (bereft of 
  all qualifications to pursue bhakti yOga / jn~Ana yOga / karma yOga) 
  and ananyagatitva (no other refuge other than SrIman nArAyaNA), one is 
  fit for prapatti and by its adoption by completing the five angAs and 
  the angIs as a sAdhyOpAya, the most most merciful SrIman nArAyaNA, the 
  SiddhOpAya does a miracle of the greatest order due to His abundant 
  grace (+ most impotantly by the purushakAratvam of utmost merciful 
  pirAtti) and the divya dampati together as SaraNAgatha VatsalAs makes
  the sankalpam to grant moksham on the time seeked by the mumukshu. 

  Thus, the Ashrama one is in, is irrelevant for a mumukshu to adopt the
  "hitam" and attain the purushArtam. sannyAsa Ashrama has its own 
  glories and gruhastAshrama (when properly followed) has its own 
  glories. It is not a must that one has to finally take up sannyAsam
  to attain the purushArtam of moksham ie. uninterrupted kainkaryam.

  vEdic passages do occur, which say that sannyAsa is required to attain
  moksham. advaitins take it be as sannyAsa-Ashrama and thus, for 
  them, sannyAsa-Ashrama is a must for to obtain their concept of 
  moksham viz. realization of nirvisEsha Brahman as everything.
  But our AchAryAs have interpreted it appropriately and beautifully
  that, sannyAsa here actually refers to the nyAsa vidya viz.
  prapatti. SrI nadAdUr ammAL in His Prapanna pArijAta discusses
  about this. Hitam only leads to the attainment of the  purushArtam 
  viz. moksham. Thus, sannyAsa as the Brahma vidya of prapatti to 
  attain moksham is the actual implication of the Sruti ; the 
  sannyAsa-Ashrama by itself is "not" a Brahma Vidya (ie. not a 
  hitam).

  Sri Bharat has already explained well the relationship between the
  karma khAnda and jn~Ana khAnda portions of vEdAs. Even in the archives
  such things are there posted by other devotees. yaj~nAs prescibed
  in the Karma kAnda section of vEdAs when done with the aim of 
  achieving the (materialistic) fruit associated with it ( eg: 
  putrakAmEshti yAgam to obtain children), then it is not karma yOga.
  A karma yOgi can perform the same putrakAmEshti yAgam with sAthvIka
  tyAgam, purely as an ArAdhana to SrIman nArAyaNA, the Parabrahman 
  ( without any materialistic motive). In this case, the mantrAs 
  associated with the putrakAmEShti yAgam are used to perform the 
  ArAdhanam. This acts as a sAdhana for him to attain moksham (through
  the development of bhakti yOgam). Ofcourse, a prapanna can also
  perform a putrakAmEShti yAgam , purely as an ArAdhanam to PerumAL
  and here, the motive is not to attain moksham also (but just for
  bhagavad anubhavam/ SrIman nArAyaNa preethartham). Thus, yaj~nAs 
  prescribed in the karma kAndam are not irrevelant at all. 

  AzhwAr, yemperumAnAr, dESikan, Azhagiyasingar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
  
 adiyEn rAmAnuja dAsan
 ananthapadmanAbha dAsan
 krishNArpaNam