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AntarvyApti and BahirvyApti (Was Re: Doubt)

From: Anand Karalapakkam (
Date: Mon Jul 31 2000 - 12:06:22 PDT

SrI Lakshminrusimha ParabrahmaNE namaha
SrImatE rAmAnujAya namaha
SrImatE nigamAnta mahAdESikAya namaha
SrI nArAyaNa yateendra mahAdESikAya namaha

 Dear Smt Lakshmi,
 namO nArAyaNa.
> Veda says "Anthar Bhahischa tat Sarvam Vyapya Narayana
> Sthithaha"
> I have a doubt regarding Antharvyapthi & Bahirvyapthi.
> Regarding Amtharvyapthi: When our Athma itself is
> Anumathram how can Emberuman reside inside
> it.Similarly Time is said to be Vipu then how is
> Bhairvyapthi possible.
> Could anyone enlighten me regarding this.

 SwAmi DESikan explains that Lord nArAyaNa (ie.divyAtma swaroopam) 
 is physically not present inside a jIvAtma.

 In the chillarai rahasyam virOdha parihAram (50), swAmi 
 DESikan asks the following question and answers it by himself : 

 Qtn : A jIvAtma is aNu (atomic) in nature to the extent that 
       there is nothing which is smaller than that. There is 
       nothing like "inside a jIvAtma" since by nature it is 
       aNu. Similarly, kAlA (ie.time) is vibhu (all pervading). 
       So, there is nothing like "outside the kAlA" since by 
       nature it is all pervading. When these are the facts , 
       How can the Lord be said to be present inside and outside 
       of everything ? How can He be told to be inside a 
       jIvAtma and outside the kAlA ? 

 Ans : The purport of such Scriptural statements is that, 
       ParamAtma is present everywhere alongwith all the entities
       ie. In all the dravyAs, there is no pradESa (place) in 
       which Lord does not exist. 

 < Ref:  SrI SrIrAmadESikAchArya's vivaraNam and moolam >.

     Lets disuss the implication of the above answer by 
     SwAmi dESikan.

     Wherever either "in" or "out" of some entity exists , 
     Lord is there. Whenever either "in" or "out" of some 
     entity can't be defined (ie.non existent) the question 
     of Lord's presence out there does not arise at all. This 
     will clarify the meanings of "antarvyApti" and  

     The question whether the color of the horn of a rabbit is 
     either brown or white does not arise since rabbit does not 
     have a horn in the first hand. Similarly, when there is 
     nothing called "inside" of a jIvAtma , the question as to
     whether PerumAL is inside it does not arise at all. 
     kAlA exists everywhere - both at material and Spiritual 
     world. So, there is nothing outside of kAlA.
     So, ParamAtma is not physically present either inside a 
     jIvAtma Or Outside kAla. He exists alongwith them. This is 
     how the antarvyApti and bahirvyApti of such entities has to
     be understood.   

  In the Moolamantra adhikAram of SrImad Rahasya Traya SAram,
  SwAmi DESikan "defines" antarvyApti and "bahirvyApti", while
  discussing the meaning of the word "nArAyaNa".

  " antarvyApti-yAvadu -- ivaiyuLLa idatthil tannai illaiyenna -
    voNNAdapadi kalandu niRkai. bahirvyApti-yAvadu -- ivai illAda
    idatthilum yengum thAn vuLanAgai ".

  ie. antarvyApti (Immanence) = Being inseparably present with 
      other things/beings, such that it can not be said that 
      Lord is not present where they are (=> Lord always being 
      present wherever they are).
      BahirvyApti (Transcendence) = Being present in those places
      where they are not present.
  SwAmi DESikan then clarifies the VishNu purANam verse (1.9.41)
  "nArAyaNamanIyAmsam aSEshANAmanIyAmsAm ..." that it does not
  mean nArAyaNa as being smaller than the aNu jIvAtma in size.
  SwAmi DESikan refers to the Sruti vAkya (ChAndOgya Up - SAndilya
  Vidya) which is ascertained in Brahma-SUtra and SrIBhAshya to 
  mean that Brahman being smaller in size than the "grain" implies 
  that it is of the size of the upAdhi (conditioning factor)
  viz.grain (in this context). 

   UttamUr SwAmi comments in a good amount of detail on these
   original texts of SwAmi DESikan. aDIyEn will take up that 
   explanation in a separate posting (probably within this week if 
   more free time is around). 
   Clarifications on couple of verses of NammAzhwar's ThiruvAimozhi  
   which has been earlier (few months back) quoted by a member for 
   the understanding that ParamAtma is inside a jIvAtma :

     1. "parantataN paravaiyuL........
         karanthu yengum parantuLan ivai yunda karanE " (1.1.10)

         Please go through PiLLAn's commentary. He says 
         about the "vyApti" of yemperumAn (Lord) ie. PerumAL's
         vyApti is present in minute particles (achits/
         insentients) and also in chits.

         UttamUr swAmi in his commentary, asks this question
         particularly ie.regarding vyApti and as to whats
         antarvyApti and bahirvyApti is all about.

         In this pAsuram, yemperumAn is said to be "karantu 
         parantuLan" ie. "maRaintu Sambandappattu irukkirAn".
         UttamUr swAmi explains as to how time and dharmabhUta
         jn~yAnam of PerumAL being vibhu, does not have 
         anything outside it and thus PerumAL can't be "outside"
         them logically. Infact, swAmi adds that time does not 
         have "inside" also since it is partless (niravaya). If 
         one understands that antarvyApti to be "inside" an 
         entity and "bahir vyApti" to be "outside" an entity, 
         then time can't have both antarvyApti and bahirvyApti. 
         antarvyApti for an entity can also mean the united 
         presence of yemperumAn, everywhere that entity exists. 

         "abhinava dESikan" UttamUr swAmi has explained this 
         pAsuram, following SwAmi DESikan's clarifications.

         UttamUr SwAmi explains beautifully as to how 
         "idam thigazh poruL tharum" in this pAsuram explains
         the antarvyApti of yemperumAn in such a way as 
         explained above. Just as how the sambandha (relation /
         union) of the "aNu" jIvAtma with the paramANu(*) of 
         achEtanas, the same sambandha exists between ParamAtma 
         and jIvAtma. The "idam" in the pAsuram refers to those 
         tiny places where jIvAtma is present with paramANus 
         (evident from other lines in the pAsuram). Thus, it is
         not that ParamAtma is inside jIvAtma.  

         UttamUr SwAmi explains as to how the usage of word 
         "thigazh" carries more significance : It refers to 
         prakAsatvam (manifestation). jIvAtma manifests
         to itself, without any external aid ie. the feeling of 
         "I" always exists for a jIvAtma. If jIvAtma has to have 
         parts (Or split by some means), then that feeling 
         can't be a single I, but as a union of many parts. 
         The feeling of "I" by itself signifies as to how jIvAtma
         is partless. UttamUr SwAmi says that, this word "thigazh"
         dispels the question as to whether jIvAtma and achEtana
         aNu(s) have internal parts. 
  Please refer to UttamUr SwAmi's commentary for more detailed 

         (*) : ParamANu is the fundamental unit of prakruti which 
               is partless. jIvAtma and ParamAtma does not reside
               inside this ParamANu, since by definition it has
               no internal parts. The ParamANu of NayyAyikAs 
               (Logicians of NyAya SAstra), which is a nitya 
               padArtha for them and the upAdAna-kAraNam of Jagat
               for them, is not accepteble to VEdAntins. What they 
               call as "TriaNuka" (Triad) is the "ParamANu" Or 
               simply "aNu" for VEdAntins (Ref: SrI BhAshyam).         
  2.   "aDiyEn uLLAn udal uLLAn ......" (8.8.2)

        yeedu : "IraNdAm pAttu. yennudaya hrudayattilE 
        pugunthirunda aLavandRikkE, yen SarIrattilEyum
        pugunthu kalandAn yengiRAr".

        Thus, NampiLLai explains that, by this pAsuram, 
        NammAzhwar says "Not only having entered my heart,
        He (Lord) has also entered and mingled in my body".

        So, this might convey the meaning that "aDiyEn
        uLLAn" refers to "Present in my heart", rather than
        "Present inside myself the jIvAtma". 

       Also, after narrating the anectode wherein the esoteric
       significance of the word "aDiyEn" was explained by
       ThirukkOshtuyUr Nambi to KUratAzhwAn, NambiLLai says :   
        " yennuLLAn yennavENdum idatthilE aDiyEnuLLAn yengaiyAlE 
          jn~yAna-aanandangaL anRu vastuvukku nirUpagam; 
          sEshatvamengai. jn~yAna-aanandangaLilum antarangam 
          bhagavad sEshatvamengai"
        ie. "By using 'aDiyEnuLLAn' (ie. in 'aDiyEn') instead of 
             "yennuLLAn" (ie. in me), it is meant that jn~yAna, 
             aananda etc are not the primary identifiers of a 
             jIvAtma. Its only sEshatvam (to ParamAtma) 
             ie. Bhagavad SEshatvam of a jIvAtma is more important 
             than jn~yAna, aananda etc which identify a jIvAtma ".

    In this very pAsuram, AzhwAr says "kadisEr nARRatthuL ....".
    nARRatthuL implies "inside smell (vAsanai)".

    NampiLLai clarifies : "nARRatthuL yenRArEnum, vAsanaikku 
    uLLum pRambum illAmaiyAlE nARRatthilE yenRu koLga"

    ie. "Though said 'inside smell', since inside and outside
         for smell does not exist, it has to be taken as "in 

  In a similar fashion, since there is no "inside" for a jIvAtma,
  the purport of pramAnas on antarvyApti of ParamAtma w.r.t. 
  jIvAtma has to be appropriately understood. 

  Few months back, a member had mentioned that Bhagavad RAmAnuja 
  has explained that ParamAtma is physically inside a jIvAtma,
  in VEdArtha Sangraha. To aDiyEn's knowledge it is not there
  in that grantha to that effect.
  aDiyEn rAmAnuja dAsan,

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