You are here: Sri Vaishnava Home Page : Bhakti List : Archives : February 1999

The "brief" descriptions of the five Mathams

From: Sadagopan (sgopan_at_computer.net)
Date: Fri Feb 05 1999 - 19:22:38 PST

>Date: Mon, 01 Feb 1999 20:04:45 -0500
>To: "Malolan Paduka Sevaka Net":;
>From: Anand Srinivasan <asriniva@rnd.stern.nyu.edu> 
>
>Dear Sriman. Sadagpoan,
>
>Could you (if possible) very briefly elaborate on each one
>of the mathams below?>
>adiYen
>Anand 
>
>>Sadagopan wrote:
>>6. H.H The Jeeyar elaborated on the five incorrect views 
>>   (pakshams )that define the five different mathams :
>>
>>   A. Aathmaikya Paksham of Yaadhava Prakaasan  
>>   B. Dhevathaikya Paksham , 
>>   C. Thrimoorthy Saamya paksham
>>   D. Thrimoorthy Eikhya paksham
>>   E. Anyathra Isvarya paksham 

Dear Sri Anand Srinivasan :

These 5 mathams are very important to understand 
in the context of the correctness of Sri VisishtAdhvaitham
as proven by Swami Desikan in Tattva Muktha Kalaapa ,
Sarvaartha Siddhi ( a commentary on the latter )
and Srimath Rahasya Thraya Saaram . I will try to 
summarize them , although they are difficult Vedanthic
concepts and will defy brief descriptions.

A.Aathmaikya Paksham of Yaadhava Prakaasaa

This system of philosophy is known as 
the BhEdhAbhEdha Vaadam and is attributed to
BhaaskarA and Yaadhava PrakaasA . This is a powerful
school of VedanthA at one time , as seen from 
the lengthy steps taken by Sudarsana Soori to refute 
the above darsanam following the lines of AchArya 
RaamAnujA's Sri Bhaashyam .BhEdhAbhEdham means 
literally ,identity in difference .

The issue is related to how one can explain the 
material causality of Brahman ? For reference ,
a lump of clay is the material cause (upAdAna 
Kaaranam ) for an earthern pot .How does Brahman ,
which upanishads assert as immutable transform into
the universe ? How is the material casuality of 
Brahman accounted for without affecting the svarUpam 
of Brahman ?

BhaskarA and YaadhavaprakAsA accounted for this 
by stating that Brahman itself transforms into the 
material universe .This is generally recognized as
BRAHMA -PARINAAMA -VAADHAM .

VisishtAdhvaithins connected Brahman with chEthanam 
and AchEthanam ( sentient/chith and insentient/achith ) 
and held that the subtle form of assoication of Brahman
with Chith and achith ( Sookshama -chith-achidh visishta form)
is how one can explain the material causality of Brahman .
This is a considered a modified form of BRAHMA-PARINAAMA-
VAADHAM .

Advaithins had the view based on the illusory 
nature of the universe .They held that Brahman is 
the basis of the illusory appearance of of the universe
IS its material cause. Vedantha Desika classed this view
as Vivartha Vaadham and dismissed both the Advaithin's 
and the YaadhavaprAkAsaa's views following the line 
of AchArya RaamAnujA and established the soundness
of VisishtAdhvathic darsanam .

In YaadhavaprakAsA's(YP's) matham , Brahman has three fold
power (sakthi) and it transforms into chith , achith
and Isvara sakthis.Brahman , which is being (sath)
transforms itself into a triadic form , while maintaining
its svarUpam unchanged although its sakthi undergoes 
transformation .In YP's matham , Brahman undergoing threefold 
changes (BhEdham )as Chethanam , Achethanam and Isvaran , while 
the svarUpam of Brahman remains unchanged (abEdham ).Swami
Desikan rejects this view as unsound on the basis that 
acceptance of bhEdham and abEdham in one breath
amounts to self-contradiction . This aathmaikyam 
( the identity of aathmA/Paramaathma with prapancham
(material universe ) is thus rejected .

2. dEvathaikya Paksham : This accepts that Brahman ,
ChEthanam and AchEthanam are distinctly different .
But , it commits the blunder by holding the view that
there is no difference between dEvAs like BrahmA ,
RudrA , Indran and ParamAthmA ( BhagavAn/Isvaran ).
This point of view promulgates that the aathmA
underlying all of them is one and the same .Since
the same aathmA is present in the bodies of both
BhagavAn and devathAs according to this view ,
it leads to the conclusion that there is no
difference between the supreme God and the demi-Gods .
Our SiddhAntham in distinct contrast recognizes limitless
jeevans occupying limitless sarirams while our Lord shines  
as the antharyAmi of all these multitudinous Jeevans . 
Swami Desikan rejects this view as well .

3. ThrimUrthy Saamya paksham : This point of view 
overcomes the inherent limitation of the dEvathaikya paksham .
It recognizes that the bodies of BrahmA-VishNu-Rudhran 
house different aathmAs .Those three aathmAs have 
the six auspicious attributes of Jn~Anam , Sakthi ,
Bhalam , Eisvaryam , Veeryam and Tejas in the same measure. 
These six attributes associated with the three aathmAs 
belonging to Brahma -VishNu-Rudhran are considered 
identical in value. There is no thAra Tamyam in
these GuNams . They have saamyam or identical value
among the thrimUrthys .This view recognizes that 
other DevAs like Agni , Indran will have less or
more of each of the six guNAs , but not the thrimUrthys.

Our siddhAntham  based on Sruthis assert that 
Brahma and Rudran are karma vasyAs , who derive their
origin/power from Sriman naarAyaNA and the Lord takes on 
the incarnation of VishNu from para VaasudEva Roopam .
VishNu is not born like Rudran and BrahmA .
Jeevans like BrahmA and Rudran are born because 
of their karmAs and that VishNu is not born , but 
is an avathAram of Sriman NaarAyaNA .

4. ThrimUrthy Eikhya paksham : Here ,a subtle change 
is made from the above ThrimUrthy Saamya Paksham .
Here the sarirams of the thrimUrthys are recognized 
as different , but the same aathmA resides inside all
the three. All the other devathAs would have aatham 
bhEdham , but not these three.

When one takes into account pramANams such as 
" aadhyO NaarAyaNOdhEva:tasmaath BrahmA tathO Bhava:",
it is hard to support either the ThrimUrth Eikhya or
Saamya pakshams. The first and foremosrt Jagadh 
KaaraNam is Sriman naarAyaNan in our sampradhAyam 
and hence views 3 &4 are rejected .We believe in 
the PramANam : "AadhyO naarayaNa: deva: ,
ParO NaaraayaNa : deva: ( He is the first and ancient 
as well as the supreme devan : para devathai ). 

5.Anyathra Eisvarya Paksham : This view is known 
as utthIrna vaadham . This view holds that VishNu
because He is part of th trinity can not have 
jagath KaaraNathvam and hence there must be yet another 
( anyathra Isvaran ) beyond the Trinity  , who must
have jagath kaaraNathvam . In this vaadham known also 
as VyOmAdhitha vaadham , VishNU's status as an 
incarnation of para Vaasudevan is deemphasized 
and He is lumped with BrahmA and Rudran. This
view is therefore not acceptable to us based on
PramANams once again .

What is acceptable after rejecting the above five pakshams ?
***********************************************************

The theme of the sixth chapter , ParadEvathA PaaramArthya
adhikhAram deals at great length about this subject
and establishes unambigously that Sriman NaarAyaNA 
is the Para dEvathai and that is the true status
(paaramArthyam)among all gods.Swami says in the second half
of the introductory slOkam of the sixth hapte rthat all
the VedAs announce Sriman NaarAyaNA's supermacy in
a united voice (Yekha kantam ) as well as Sage VyAsaa and 
other great ones :

thrayyanthi : yEkha KaNtai: 
tadhanuguNamanu:VyAsamukhyOkthibhisccha 

What do they say ?They say clearly that 
Sriman NaarAyaNan is the supreme Lord 
to All and has the chEthanams and achEthanams 
as His body ; He is the one and only One ,
who can grant us Moksham and He is the One ,
who is enjoyed by the Muktha Jeevans :

Sriman NaarAyaNO na: pathirakhila tanu:
mukthidhO MukthabhOgya : 

Thus the refutation of the five points of view 
leaves us convinced that Sriman NaarAyaNan
is para Tatthvam and He is the Sarva sEshi tous all
and is our Supreme Swami .Manu Smruthi , MahA Bharatham ,
Sri VishNu PurANam provide us the PramANams
to recognize Sriman NaarAyaNan as Jagadh KaaraNan
and Para Tatthvam .SaraNAgathi at His sacred feet 
would yield without fail Moksham .

H.H. The 45th Jeeyar of AhObila matam focused 
on the sixth chapter of Srimath Rahasya Thraya
Saaram in his last UpanyAsam over the tele-bridge .

NaarAyaNa , NaarAyaNa , NaarAyaNa !

Swami Desikan ThiruvadigaLE SaraNam
Oppilaippan Koil VaradAchAri SadagOpan