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SrImvishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 57 - Part 2.

From: Narasimhan Krishnamachari (
Date: Mon Aug 23 1999 - 17:33:27 PDT

		SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 57 - Part 2.


538. tri-padah - a) The Propounder of the three tattva-s.
		b) He Who is in the form of praNava mantra with three letters.
		c) He Who assumed the form of a Boar with three humps.
		d) He Who triumphed over the worlds with three steps.
		e) He Who is the Lord of the past, present, and future.

om tri-padAya namah.

The three tattva-s referred to here by SrI BhaTTar are:  pradhAna
(non-sentient matter), purusha (the individual soul), and paramAtmA. 
These are also referred to as bhoktA (the individual self), bhogya (the
objects of enjoyment or the non-sentient matter), and  niyantR (Ruler).
 SrI BhaTTar gives reference to vishNu dharma 63.59:

	sattvAnAm upakArAya pradhAnam purusham param    |
	darSayishyAmi lokeshu kApilam rUpam Asthitah         ||

	"For the benefit of all beings in the world, having assumed the form
of kapila, I am going to reveal the three Realities viz. pradhAna,
purusha, and paramAtmA".

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains that the three tattva-s refer to the
three states in which bhagavAn manifests Himself - as One who protects
the world, as one who protects the devatA-s who protect the world, and
as SrIvaikunTha nAthan disassociated with this world.

SrI BhaTTar gives two other alternate interpretations.

b) tri-padah can also mean that He is represented by the three words or
syllables of the praNava - A U M.

c) In His varAha incarnation, BhagavAn assumed the form of a boar with
three humps (tri-padah) - tavaivAsam trika-kudo vArAham rUpamAsthitah 
(mahA. moksha. 343.63) - "I assumed the form of varAha (Boar) with
three humps". 

d) SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma in terms of the tri-vikrama
incarnation, and supports it with the quote from taitt. brAhmaNa 2.4.6
- trINi padA vicakrame - "He who triumphed over the three worlds by His
three strides".  SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the following
interpretation to the trivikrama incarnation:  bhagavAn measured this
world with one step and covered all the sthUla belongings of mahAbali,
with the second step He measured all the sUkshma belongings of bali
such as svarga which he would have achieved in his future births
through His current good deeds, and through His third step He removed
the ahamkAra mamakAra-s of bali and sent him to the eternal parama

e) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri also gives an alternate explanation that
bhagavAn has His Feet (i.e., His Adhipatyam) in the past, present, and
future, and so He is called tri-padah.

539. tridaSAdhyakshah - a) The Savior of the thirty-three gods.
		b) The Master of the three states.
		c) The Master of the three guNa-s.

om tridaSAdhyakshAya namah.

SrI BhaTTar interprets the term tri-daSa to refer to the thirty three
gods and explains the nAma as signifying that bhagavAn is their
adhyaksha and helps brahma and others when they encounter difficulties
in their functions after the pralaya (brahmAdeh pralaya Apat
sakhatvAt).  Prof. SrInivAsa rAghavan adds that the term tri-daSa,
which means three times ten or thirty, is a rounded number which refers
to the thirty-three gods (eight vasu-s, eleven rudra-s, 12 Aditya-s,
and the two aSvin-s).  In tiruppAvai (20) we have reference to the
thirty three deva-s - muppatti mOvar amarkku mun SenRu kappam tavirkkum
kali (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan).   

SrI rAmAnujan explains how bhagavAn has been the Savior of the gods
during the creation soon after pralaya.  When the world was submerged
under water, and brahma could not proceed with creation, bhagavAn took
the form of the big boar and lifted the earth out of water and thus
helped brahma in his task.

SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma as tri-daSA adhyakshah, where the term
tridaSA refers to the three states - waking, dream, and deep-sleep
states.  SrI cinmayAnanda extrapolates the term to mean the rajas,
tamas, and sattva guNa-s.  Thus bhagavAn is the Lord of the three
states, or One who has mastery over the three guNa-s.

540. mahA-SR'ngah - a) The Big-tusked varAha.
		b) He who took the matsya rUpam with the big horn.

om mahA-SR'ngAya namah.

SR'nga refers to the horn of an animal.  SrI BhaTTar gives
interpretation (a), and quotes the reference from SrImad rAmAyaNam -
ekaSR'ngo varAhastvam (yuddha. 120.14) in support of his
interpretation.  He lifted the Earth from the waters with the tip of
His tusk, and the Earth appeared like the leaf of a lotus besmeared
with mud on the tusk of an elephant that has entered a lotus-pond
(vishNu purANam 1.4.36).  SrI v.v. rAmAnujan explains that the horn or
tooth of this varAha rUpam was so huge (mahASR'nga) that the Earth
looked like a small particle of food stuck at the tip of the tooth of
this huge form ( SrImad bhAgavatam).  

SrI Sa'nkara gives interpretation (b) - that the nAma refers to matsya
incarnation, where bhagavAn towed the boat tied to His big horn with
satyavrata in it and sported Himself in the pralaya waters.  

541. kRtAnta-kRt - a) The Slayer of hiraNyAksha.
		b) He who kills death himself.
		c) He who proclaimed the kRtAnta (siddhanta). 
		d) He who brings about the end to the manifested condition of the

a) and b): kRtAntam kRttavAn iti kRtAntakRt (SrI BhaTTar);  kRtAntam
mRtyum kRntati iti kRtAntakRt (SrI Sa'nkara).  Both the interpretations
have the same meaning. kRtAnta refers to yama.  SrI Sa'nkara takes the
literal meaning of kRtAnta, and gives the second meaning above, viz.
when bhagavAn brings an end to everything, this includes yama also. 
SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation (a), that bhagavAn is the Slayer
of hiraNyAksha who was like yama. 

c) SrI BhaTTar gives an alternate interpretation as well.  kRtAnta
refers to sidhhAnta, and bhagavAn is kRtAntakRt since He has
promulgated His doctrine of protecting those who seek refuge in Him. 
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to peria tirumozhi of tiruma'ngai AzhvAr
(2.6.3) where the varAha avatAram is described as the personification
of j~nAnam - Enattin uruvAgi nilama'ngai ezhil koNDAn j~nAnattin oLi
uruvai ninaivAr en nAyagarE.

d) SrI Sa'nkara also gives an alternate interpretation - kRta anta kRt
- kRtasya antam samhAram karoti iti kRta anta kRt, meaning He brings
about the destruction of kRta or manifested condition of the Universe. 
The dharma cakram writer adds that just as the farmer who sows the crop
also destroys it for the ultimate benefit of His creatures, bhagavAn
creates and then destroys what He created, for the ultimate benefit of
the jIva-s.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

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