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Re:Saathivka Abhinayanms of Arayara for AzhwAr Paasurams : Part I

From: Sadagopan (
Date: Mon Aug 27 2001 - 19:42:25 PDT

At 09:08 PM 8/24/01 -0400, adiyEn wrote:

>Dear Srimathi Usha Narayan:
>In another posting , I will share with the group 
>the mystic feeling states of our AzhwArs , who
>showed us the way to enjoy the Lord ( The Sarva Seshi ) as 
> His Sesha BhUthans.
>With all best wishes,

Dear BhakthAs:

When one looks across the length and breadth of AzhwAr's
AruLiccheyalkaLs , one is thrilled to note the many moods
of AzhwArs in Bhagavath anubhavam ranging from 
ecstacy to melancholoy , laughter to anger , fear to disgust 
in their dialogs with Sriman NaarAyaNan and in their 
adorations of their Lord and in their moving appeals to Him 
for the conferral of Nithya Kaimkaryam and ParipoorNa-
BrahmAnandha Anubhavams at Sri Vaikuntam.

They have experienced abundantly the nine rasams in their
dhivya prabhandhams : SrungAram as the Naayakis of the Lord , 
Haasyam over their own forlorn state, celebration of KaruNA 
of the Lord , Roudhram (anger)over rejection by the Lord 
(the mind set of Kaliyan at ThiruindaLUr), Veeram , 
BhayAnakam/Fear of being abandoned , BhIbathsam/disgust 
over samsAric life and adhbhutham over the enjoyment of 
the Lord's ThirumEni and anantha kalyANa guNams.
These nava rasams are abundantly seen in the different 
Pasuram passages of Dhivya prabhandham.

In this series of postings , adiyEn will make an 
unconventional attempt to provide examples of 
the Various AzhwAr's anubhavams and relate them to
the rules enunciated by Sage Bharathar for the BhAvams,
Upa-bhAvams and Rasams in his Bharatha Saasthram.
adiyEn requests the indulgence of SampradhAyic 
scholars in this effort of mine that is placed at 
Sriman NaarAyaNan's Thiruvadi as humble samarpaNam.

Swamy Naathamuni is revered by us for setting Dhivya 
Prabhandham to Music with Taalam and teaching it to
his nephews , which evolved later into ARayar Sevai 
format with Saathvika Abhinayams about the divine 
experiences of the AzhwArs (Saathvika Bhaavams)in their 
dhivya prabhandhams. 

Swamy Desikan saluted Swamy Naatha Muni for His mahOpakAram 
this way in the 6th verse of AdhikAra Sangraham:

" TaaLam Vazhangi Tamizh MaRai innisai tantha VaLLal"

(Meaning): Swamy Naatha Muni blessed his dear nephews 
with TaaLa Vidhyai (Gaandharva Vedam ) to sing sweetly
the Dhivya prabhandhams with Bhaavam, Raagam and TaaLam 
as AzhwArs of yore did to enjoy their Lord with
Bhakthi-laden paasurams housing the Vedams in Tamizh.

Some of the AzhwArs took the role of Naayakis 
to relate to their Lord.Andal did not need to take on 
the role of a Naayaki because She was already the Lord's 
divine consort. Her emotional outpourings were svabhAvikams. 

Sage BharathA who gave us the first treatise on Naatya 
Saasthram and spelled out these many moods of NaayakAs
and Naayakis many centuries ago in his treatise.He constructed
for our benefit an elaborate theory on the 41 BhAvams , 
including 33 UpabhAvams and 9 Rasams . By uniting BhAvam with 
Raagam and TaaLam , ( Bh+Ra+Tha) , he gave us the Bharatha 
Saasthram .

A vedAnthi by the name of Abhinava Guptha has written 
a commentary for Bharatha Saasthram and described each of
the Rasams and concluded finally that there is only one rasam 
at the end (i.e)., AanmIka anuubhavam or Religious Mysticism
with deep devotion that enjoys the Svaroopam of the Lord 
and pays reverence to the relationship beteween Him and 
the Sesha Jeevans .

There are 8 Bhaavams that generate 8 rasams .These are
named the SthAyi BhAvams .These are feeling states that
last longer compared to the other 33 BhAvams , which are
not as enduring from the  perspective of time as the SthAyi 
BhAvams . The well known Bharatha Naatyam artist ,
Dr. Padma Subramanyam has summarized the 8 sthAyi 
BhAvams and the 8 rasams generated from them (in paranthesis)
as follows based on BharathA's original treatise:

(1)Rathi( SrungAram)  (2)Hasam ( Haasyam) 
(3)SOkam (KaruNA)    (4)KrOdham (Roudram)
(5)UthsAkam (Veeram) (6)Bhayam (BhayAnakam)
(7)Jugupsai (BhIbathsam ) (8) Vismayam (Adhbhutham)

The UpabhAvams or non-sthAyee Bhaavams help to
transform SthAyee BhAvam into Rasams. Eleven of 
these 33 UpabhAvams are:

1. nirvEdham ( dejection , longing )
2. glAni ( powerlessness and lack of strength to endure)
3. dhainyam ( helplessness )
4. smruthi( ninaivu /focused thought )
5. dhruthi( Contentment and sense of fulfilment:ThiruvAimozhi:10.10.10)
6. Outhseekyam ( impatience as recorded in the 2 madals of Kaliyan)
7. Sooptham ( Dreaming as Andal did in VaaraNamAyiram section ) 
8. amarsham ( deep anger: IndhaLUr Paasurams of kaliyan)
9. mathi ( Firmness of Mind and possession of True Knowledge)
10.ThrAsam ( Fear and agitation )
11.Vitharkkam ( Vaadha-PrathivAdham of Thirumazhisai and Kaliyan).

In the future postings of thi series , adiyEn will attempt 
to enjoy the BhAvams behind the unique Bhagavath anubhavams of 
our AzhwArs , Sri VaishNavite Mystics , who enjoyed 
every second of their lives the Supersensory Beauty of
the Lord and His Anantha KalyANa GuNams .

Srimath Azhagiya Singar ThiruvadigaLE SaraNam ,
Daasan , Oppiliappan Koil VaradAchAri SatakOpan 

           - SrImate rAmAnujAya namaH -
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