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SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 30.

From: Krishnamachari, N (Krish) (nkrish_at_lucent.com)
Date: Wed Apr 29 1998 - 16:46:48 PDT

			SrI vishNu sahasranAmam - Slokam 30.
		
		ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharah prakASAtmA pratApanah          |
		r*ddhah spaktAksharo mantrah candrAmSur_bhAskara-dyutih
||

om ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharAya namah
om prakASAtmane namah
om pratApanAya namah
om r*ddhAya namah
om spashtAksharAya namah
om mantrAya namah
om candrAmSave namah
om bhAskara-dyutaye namah

276. ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharah - One who is endowed with strength, vigor
and brilliance.

om ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharAya namah.

	Ojas means strength or inherent vitality, tejas means reputation
or power to overcome enemies, and dyuti means effulgence or radiance.
Since bhagavAn alone has all of these, He is ojas-tejo-dyuti- dharah.
Recall that we are now going through the nAma-s that describe the
viSva-rupa.   SrI Sankara gives the reference to gItA - tejas-tejasvinAm
aham (7-10), and balam balavatAam cAham (7-11).

277. prakASAtmA - He of a nature that is well-known to all.

Om prakASAtmane namah.

	dhr*tarAshtra was blind not only externally but also in his
mind.  Even to him, bhagavAn made Himself known.  In mahAbhArata -
udyoga parva, dhr*tarAshtra says -

	"tvameva puNdarIkAksha! Sarvasya jagatah prabhuh         |
	  tasmAt te yAdava-SreshTha! PrasAdam kartumarhasi     ||

	"Oh Lotus-eyed One! You are the Protector of all the worlds.
Therefore, the foremost among the yAdavas!  You should take pity on me."
Another interpretation is that He has a form whose nature is of
radiance.

	The writer in dharma cakram points out that the prakASa or light
from the sun and stars can reveal external objects, but none of these
can reveal the Absolute Truth.  This can be revealed only by mahAvishNu
the prakASAtmA, who gives the external light to the sun and stars in the
first instance.

278. pratApanah - He who scorches (His enemies).

Om pratApanAya namah.
 
	SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma in the context of the gItA
where arjuna says that he is unable to stand the sight of the
magnificent viSvarUpa darSanam when Lord Kr*shNa reveals that the
enemies in the kaurava side are falling into the fiery mouth of the Lord
and being scorched to their end - tejobhirApUrya jagat samastam
bhAsastavogrAh pratapanti vishNo (gItA 11.30).  SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri
points out that this can also refer to the time of pralaya when the Lord
scorches the Earth with the prlayAgni.

	SrI Sankara gives the explanation that He is pratApana because
He heats the world through power manifestations like the Sun.  

279. r*ddhah - He who is full in all respects.

Om r*ddhAya namah.

The root from which this word is derived is r*dh  vr*ddhau - to prosper,
to increase.   He is full of guNa-s like dharma, knowledge, dispassion,
etc. 

280. spashTa-aksharah - He of clear words (through the veda-s).

Om spashTAksharAya namah.

The reference here is to the veda-s.   SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is
that He is spaTAksharah because He revealed Himself through the letters
of the veda-s very clearly.  SrI Sankara's interpretation is that He has
this nAma because He is clearly indicated by the supreme sound OM.  SrI
cinmayAnanda gives the reference to gItA in support of this
interpretation -

	OmityekAksharam brahma vyAharan mAm anusmaran           |
	Yah prayAti tyajan deham sa yAti paramAm gatim
||  

	"One who chants my name Om and leaves his body at the time of
death thus remembering Me, he shall go to the Supreme state". 

SrI satyaevo vAsishTha gives a very different interpretation.  He uses
the root spaS bandhane - to tie together, and akshara to mean things
that don't disappear but reappear again and again until (and even
after?) pralaya  - he uses the words Apralaya sthAyI nakshatrAdi in
Hindi), viz. the nakshatra manDala etc.   Thus he interprets this nAma's
meaning as referring to mahA vishNu who has thus tied together and is
holding together this Universe with its constellation of the heavenly
bodies.  
 
281.	mantrah - The mystic word (He who protects those who meditate on
His name).

Om mantrAya namah.

tan-mantAram trAyate iti mantArah, or mananAt trAyate iti mantrah -
mantra is that which protects him who meditates on it.   In Brahma
purANa, BhagavAn says - 

	thr*shNA toya samAkIrNAt ghorAt samsAra sAgarAt         |
	apArAt pAramApnoti yo mAm smarati nityaSah                  ||

	"He who thinks of me always, will certainly cross this vast and
frightful sea of samsAra which is filled with the waters of greed and
avarice".   

SrI BhaTTar also gives the reference to the varAha carama Sloka-s from
varAha purANa -

	sthithe manasi susvsthe SarIre sati yo narah             |
	dhAtu-sAmye sthithe smartA viSva-rUpam ca mAma ajam        ||
	tatastam mriyamANam tu kAshTha pAshANa sannibham           |
	aham smarAmi mad-bhaktam nayAmi paramAm gatim              ||

	"The man who, when his mind is in normal condition, when the
body is not shattered, and when the elementary constituents of his body
(dhAtu-s) are in perfect equipoise, meditates on Me who has thew world
as My body and who am not subject o biths due to karmA - when that man
lies like a log of wood or a piece of stone in his dying moments, I
think of this devotee of Mine and lead to attain the Supreme Abode". 

SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is the Sacred formula in
the form of the three veda-s.  

The writer in dharma cakram gives the perspective on the importance of
mantra-s in our scheme of life.  Just as we take external bath for
keeping our bodies clean, mantra-s are the means to keep our minds
clean.   This can be done either through constant repetition of the
mantra-s (japam), through deep and constant contemplation (meditation),
through musical singing (bhajan) etc.  Recall tirumangai AzhvAr - nalam
tarum Sollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn  nArAyaNA ennum nAmam - peria tirumozhi
1-1-9).
 
282.	canDra-amSuh - He who  is possessed of the effulgent rays like
those of the moon.

Om canDrAmSave namah.

The word canDra is derived from the root cadi AhlAde dIptau ca - to
delight, to shine.  He brings delight to the minds of those who are
scorched by the heat of samsAra.  He also nurtures the vegetable kingdom
with nutrition - paushNAmi caushadIh sarvA somo bhUtvA rasAtmakah - gItA
15-13.  It is known in experience also that the cool rays of the moon
are soothing.  BhavAn is like the rays of the moon for His devotees.

283.	bhAskara-dyutih - He who has the effulgence of the sun.

Om bhAskara-dyutaye namah.

This effulgence is such that it shatters and throws His enemies in all
directions.   Recall the reference to Lord rAma as rAma-divAkara -

	Sara jAlAmSumAnSUrah kape! RAma-divAkarah           |
	Satru-rakshomayam toyam uapSosham nayishyati            ||
(sundara kANdam 37-18)

	"O Monkey (HanumAn)! The sun-like rAma, who is valiant and who
has heaps of ray-like arrows, will certainly dry up the water of the
inimical rAkshasa-s."

The reference to SrI AndAl's tiruppAvai (kadir madiyam pOl mugattAn) is
relevant in this context.  Dr. V. V. rAmAnujan in his vishNu shasranAma
bhAshyam points out the significance of the two nAma-s - candrAmSuh and
bhAskara-dyutih occurring side by side.  It is unique that BhagavAn has
at the same time the comforting coolness of the moon and the scorching
heat of the sun in Him - He is soothing to His devotees and burning to
His enemies.   The description of the viSva-rUpam continues, and we know
from arjuna's description that the tejas of the viSva-rUpam is scorching
and frightful.  An instacne of this simultaneous existence of the
coothing and burning guNa-s of His tejas is the nr*simha incarnation,
where His form terrorized hiraNya-kaSipu, and but was divinely pleasing
to prahlAda.   

He is bhAskara-dyutih also because He is the cause for the dyuti or
brightness of bhAskara or the sun, or for that matter, the brightness in
every one of us.  We can see the brightness of the sun but we cannot see
the brightness of mahA vishNu.  His effulgence is explained by sanjaya
in the gItA - 

	divi sUrya sahasrasya bhaved yugapadutthitA           |
	yadi bhAh sadr*SI sA syAd-bhAsas-tasya mahAtmanah      ||
(gItA 11-12)

	"If simultaneously thousands of suns appear in the sky shining
bright, the tejas or effulgence that is seen can be compared to a
fraction of the tejas of paramAtmA".

-dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan