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vishNu sahasranAmam (9)

From: 'srini' Srinivasan Srivilliputhur (
Date: Mon Apr 29 1996 - 15:46:38 PDT

Dear All-
Since I'll be travelling, there will be no vishNu sahasranAmam postings
for the next 6-weeks.  I'll resume the same when I return to Seattle on
June 15.

	PB = Translation of srI parAsara bhattar's commentary.
	SA = Translation of srI sankarAchArya's commentary.
(sl-15) lokA'dhyakshaH surA'dhyaksho dharmA'dhyakshaH kRtA'kRtaH
        catur'AtmA catur-vyUhas catur-damshTras catur-bhujaH

133  lokA'dhyakshaH

	PB:	'A'dhyakshaH' means 'the presiding overlord'. He who
		controls the world is the 'lokA'dhyakshaH'

	SA:	He who directly witnesses everything (in pradhAna/prakRti/

134  surA'dhyakshaH

	PB:	He who controls the Gods (surAs)

	SA:	He exercises overlordship over gods.

135  dharmA'dhyakshaH

	PB:	He who controls dharma.

	SA:	He directly sees the dharma (merits) and adharma (demerits)
		of all and confers due rewards.

	PB:	In names (133-135), lokAH : those eligible to practice dharma;
		surAH   : the dieties worshipped by those eligible; and
		dharmaH : the instrument of such worship ordained by SAstras.
		He (anuruddha) controls all these. He alone dispenses fruits
		with knowledge (of the dharma performed by each person). He is
		therefore called the Knower of dharma, Knower of Methods,
		Presiding Diety, Highly Truthful.

136  kRtA'kRtaH

	PB:	dharma is of two kinds, one that prolongs samsAra and the
		other liberates us from samsAra. He is called 'krutha' because
		He gives temporary fruits (in this world) to those who are
		worldly. He is also 'akrutha' as He gives the eternal fruit
		of moksha to those who seek it. Hence He is 'kRtA'kRtaH'.

	SA:	He is both the cause and effect of the Universe.

137  catur'AtmA

	PB:	He of four-forms (vAsudeva, samkarshana, pradhyumna and
		aniruddha). These four vyUhas have the Supreme para vAsudeva
		as their AtmA.

	SA:	One who assumes forms for the creation, suatenation and
		dissolution. Vide VishNu pUrANA (I 22-31-33) -
		"brahmA, prajApatis like daksha, kAla (time) and jIvAs -
		these are powers of vishNu for the purpose of creation.
		vishNu, the manus, kAla (time) and living beings -
		these are powers of vishNu for the purpose of sustenation.
		rudra, Time, Death (mRtyu) and living beings -
		these are powers of vishNu for the purpose of dissolution".

138  catur-vyUhaH

	PB:	This name explains how He is catur'AtmA. For the purposes
		already mentioned, The Supreme Being suitably distributes
		His six qualities in four forms of Himself. These four forms
		are expressive of His special qualities,color,status,actions,
		ornaments, weapons etc.

	SA:	He has four manifestations. vyAsa says -
		"The all famed janArdana manifests Himself in four forms
		(vAsudeva, samkarshana, pradhyumna and aniruddha), to perform
		the work creation etc. (with these forms)".

139  catur-damshTraH

	PB:	He of four teeth in His transcendental form (from which the
		four vyuhas emerge). The possession of four large teeth is
		an indication of a mahApurusha (Great Person).

	SA:	One with four fangs in His nRsimha avatArA.

140  catur-bhujaH

	PB:	Four-Armed. They say that such is the para-rUpa (the
		transcendental form). Vide -
		"endowed with four arms",
		"He who is in a place beyond darkness (the material world)
		and who wields the conch, discuss, mace and bow".

	SA:	Four-armed.
(sl-16) bhrAjishNur-bhojanam bhoktA sahishNur jaga-AdijaH
        anagho vijayo jetA viSva-yoniH punar-vasuH

141  bhrAjishNuH

	PB:	The effulgent. As vyUha avatArs, He manifests Himself to His

	SA:	He is the essence of light (and shines everywhere).

142  bhojanam

	PB:	He is enjoyed by his bhaktAs.

	SA:	prakRti or mAyA is called bhojanam (or what is enjoyed by
		the Lord). But as He Himself is prakRti, He is also called
		bhojanam (the object of enjoyment).

143  bhoktA

	PB:	He is bhoktA since He Himself enjoys the offerings made to Him
		lovingly (by his bhaktAs). Vide -
		"I enjoy the offering made by the pure-minded",
		"I am the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities".

	SA:	As purusha He enjoys prakRti. So He is bhoktA (enjoyer).

144  sahishNuH

	PB:	(Due to His generous nature) He forgives all the faults of
		His devotees. If it is asked how His patience is immeasurable,
		the answer is given by the use of 'ishNu' suffix. This
		signifies a quality which is natural to Him like coolness
		that is natural to moon, water etc.

	SA:	He is sahishNuH as He supresses asuras like hiraNyAksha.

145  jaga-AdijaH

	PB:	Until now His vyuha avatArs were referred to. Now on, His
		vibhava avatArs will be dealt with. jaga-AdijaH means He
		who is the first born in the Universe and is one of the
		trinity (trimUrtis).

	SA:	He who manifested as hiraNyagarba (by Himself) at the
		beginning of creation.

146  anaghaH

	PB:	Though born, as vishNu, in the midst of samsArA (the
		material world), He is Sinless (and so anaghaH). He Himself
		is the destroyer of all sins.

	SA:	The sinless one. Vide -
		"apahata pApmA - He is without sin" (Cha.U. 8.7.1).

147  vijayaH

	PB:	Victory Incarnate. The creation and destruction of the world
		are done by brahma and rudra is possible because of His help.
		Vide - "The Creator and the Destroyer follow the paths
		indicated by Him".

	SA:	He is Lord of the Universe by virtue of His bhagas (j~nana,
		vairAgya and other qualities).

148  jetA

	PB:	The Conqueror. He makes even brahma and rudra yield to His

	SA:	One who naturally excels all beings.

149  viSva-yoniH

	PB:	Through the other mUrtis, He is the cause of the Universe.

	SA:	He is all and the Cause of all.

150  punar-vasuH

	PB:	He is punarvasuH as He resides in other gods, beginning with
		brahma and rudra, as their antarAtmA (Inner Soul). Vide -
		"He is the relation of Gods kept in caves (hearts)",
		Brahma says (to Rudra) "He is the Inner Soul of yourself
		and myself and all the embodied beings".
		This and the succeeding names of upedra, vAmana and prAmSu
		indicate that the Unborn Eternal Supreme Being, out of His
		grace, passes through the states of birth and life on the
		earth for the redemption/protection of humanity.

	SA:	One who dwells again and again in the bodies (as kshetraj~na).
S. G. Srinivasan                email :
Graduate Student
Dept. Of Mater. Sci. & Engg.
Room 204, Roberts Hall, BOX 352120
University Of Washington        Phone : (206)-632-1083 (H)
Seattle, WA 98195-2120                  (206)-685-3851 (W)