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Text-Chaaga_Pasu_Nyaayam(Vishnu's Supremacy)

From: M.S.HARI (Madabhushi Sarangarajan Hari) (
Date: Wed Apr 12 2000 - 19:18:32 PDT

Dear Bhaagavatas,

As requested by many to send this article in "text" format, I am 
sending it again as follows. Please do send your valueable comments
and suggestions to me.

Regards & Thanks
M.S.HARI Raamaanuja Daasan
Chaaga Pasu Nyaaya & Supremacy of Shreeman Naaraayana
"Nyaaya" is a Sanskrit terms almost meaning "Maxim". Numerous such nyaayas are
used in philosophical discussions and debates to ascertain the purport of
interpretations and arguments. These maxim help us to understand certain
elements that are beyond the comprehension of our senses because they are in
the form of citing examples which are already known to us. Nyaaya is a
component of philosophy system as far as those schools of philosophical
thoughts, which are based on Vedas. In this article, I am going to explain a
Poorva Meemaamsaa nyaaya called Chaaga Pasu Nyaaya to ascertain the Supremacy
of Shreeman Naaraayana as declared by the Vedas.

Chaaga Pasu Nyaaya - explained
The Poorva Meemaamsa Sutras are aphorisms composed by Jaimini (to explain the
Karma Kaanda of Vedas) who is supposed to be the contemporary / disciple of
Veda Vyasa (who composed the aphorisms Brahma Sutras  (to explain the Brahma
Kaanda of Vedas)). The poorva meemaamsa deals elaborately with 'Karma" -
performance of various rituals and sacrifices called Yajnaays, Yaagas, Kratu,
Homa etc. In this it is ascertained that such karma is the means for the three
fold nature of the materialistic life namely dharma, artha and kaama. On the
other hand, Brahma Sutra talks about the fourth goal, which is transcendental,
namely the moksha.  The maxim that is the subject of this article is a poorva
meemaamsa based nyaaya as told already, is used here in this poorva meemaamsa
to ascertain a particular sacrifice. The Veda says "Pasunaa Yajeta" meaning,
"Do the sacrifice (a specific yagnya) by sacrificing animal". Here it is to be
noted that the Sanskrit term "Pasu" is a common noun, which means "Animal".
The question now arises - "What animal is to be sacrificed?"  The common noun
"Pasu" is derived in Sanskrit because the animal is tied to the Yoopa which,
is a post erected near the Yagnya altar (pachatey iti pasuhu). It can denote
any animal. When the Vedic verses in the same context are further read
carefully, we find another verse "Caagasya Vapaayaaha" meaning, "Using the
organ called "Vapa" of the goat, do the sacrifice". The term "Caaga" meaning
"Goat" is a particular noun. The question therefore gets the answer - "The
animal is none other than the goat". Therefore it is ascertained that the
specific sacrifice is to be done by sacrificing goat. This is "Chaaga Pasu
Nyaaya". Therefore, comprehending the meaning of common nouns using the
meaning conveyed by the particular noun and identifying the common nouns with
the entity that is denoted by the particular noun in the given relevant
context is "Chaaga Pasu Nyaaya". "Vishesha sadaartha prathipaadita arthe
saamaanya sada ganaartha paryavasaanam" This nyaaya is now applied in the
upanishad texts as follows.

Analysis of Upanishad Texts - Important Kaarana & Chodaka Vaakyaas
In the following paragraphs, important upanishad texts are going to be
analyzed in the context of finding out who is identified as the Supreme self
in the Vedas. We will then subject this analysis with respect to the chaaga
pasu nyaayam, which is discussed above.   

The upanishads otherwise known as Vedanta explains the Brahman's Swaroopa
(reality), Roopa (form), Guna (Charecteristics/attributes/qualities),
Vibhuthi-Iswaryam (Lordship). The upanishad texts are broadly classifiable
into Kaarana Vaakya and Chodaka Vaakya. Kaarana Vaakyas are those verses of
the upanishads which declares the Brahman as the only cause (material and
instrumental cause) of the universe. Chodaka Vaakyas are those verses of the
upanishads which declares the various infinite divine qualities of the Brahman
who is the only cause of the universe. Let us now consider certain Kaarana
Vaakyaas. In the "Sat Vidya" of Chandokya Upanishad, we come across the verse
"Sat Eva Sowmya Edamagre Aasit". Here the upanishad declares that the cause of
the universe by using the term "Sat". "Sat" means the eternal existing supreme
soul, which is the cause, unchanging in nature. Is this "Sat" a sentient being
or an insentient being? When we analyze the Vedanta further, we read another
verse "Aatma va Edamekam Agre Aasit". Here the upanishad says that "Sat" is
"Aatma". "Aatma" is derived from "Aapnothi iti Aatma" vytputhi. That it,
"Aatma is the one which spreads on its body by its knowledge in terms of
supporting, controlling and owning its body". This shows that the supreme self
is sentient. Is the supreme self different from the Chit(Jeeva) or one amount
the Jeevas? Further down in the Vedanta, we find that this supreme self is
called by the name "Brahman" - "Yato va imani bhutaani jaayente yena jaathani
jeevanti yam prayanthi abhisamvisantithi tat vijgyaasasva tat brahmethi".
"Brahman" is the term, which is derived from the root "Brah" meaning,
greatness - greatness in terms of reality, form, attributes, and lordship.
This is not applicable to the Chit (Jeeva) though it is sentient but only
finite (Anu swaroopa) as declared in Vedas. Therefore the supreme sprit is
different from the Jeeva and is unparalleled and unsurpassed. Up to this, we
comprehend that the supreme self is different from the Jeevas and non-living
matter but still we need to know who this supreme self is? In the Vedanta, we
find the verse "Eko ha vai Naaraayana Aasit ... Na brahma nesaanaha" and
"Apahatapaapma Divyo devaha Eko Naaraayana:" These verses clearly says that
the supreme self called as "Sat", "Aatma" and "Brahman" is none other than
"Naaraayana". Now we apply the chaaga pasu nyaaya. It is to be noted here very
clearly that "Sat", "Aatma" and "Brahman" are common nouns but the term
"Naaraayana" is a particular noun identifying the Lord of Goddess Lakshmi and
Bhoomi "Hereeshca Te Lakshmischa Patniyow" is the Purusha Sukta in Veda
confirming this. "Naaraayana" is the term derived from the vyutputhis
"Naaraanaam Ayanam" and "Yesya Naaraaha Ayanam".  "Nara" means Vishnu
(Naaraayana) because He is imperishable. "Naara" means the entire universe
composed of Chit & Achit entities which originated from "Nara" as "Nara" is
the cause of the entire universe having the subtle chit & achit as his body
before creation and creates them by giving expanded form and having the
expanded chit and achit as his body. "Naaraanaam Ayanam" means "Naaraayana is
the base/support for all chit and achit tatvas". This shows the "Bhahir
Vyaapthi" - the manner in which Naaraayana pervades the universe. "Yesya
Naaraaha Ayanam" means "Naaraayana is present inside all chit and achit
entities as the ultimate controller (anthar-yaamin, soul) and owner
(Seshi-Lord) of everthing. This shows the "Anthar Vyaapthi" - the manner in
which Naaraayana is present inside everything. The "NAakaara" in the end of
the term "NaaraayaNA" without doubt says that the term "Naaraayana" is a
particular noun denoting the Lord of Goddess Lakshmi who is Vishnu. This is
confirmed by the grammatical rule of the Vedas (Vyaakaranam - one among the
six accessories of the Veda) and by Paanini's grammatical treatise. Thus the
Veda identifies the supreme self (Brahman) as Shreeman Naaraayana. Thus is the
application of the Chaaga Pasu Nyaaya. Further the the Brahma Sutra recognizes
only the Paancharaatra Aagama as authoritative as the Veda and rejects all
other authored works like Saankya, Yoga, Vaisheshika, Charuvaaka, Bowdha,
Jaina and Pasupata Saiva. It further identifies the Supreme self by Ubhya
Lingam - Two identifications namely "Ananta Kalyaana Gunaakaratvam" (Supreme
self has infinite divine qualities) and "Akila Heya Pratyaneekatvam" (Supreme
self though is present in all chit and achit entities, is untouched by all
impurities). These two identifications apply only to Shreeman Naaraayana and
it does not apply to any other deity. Therefore it is ascertained without
doubt from the authority of Veda that Shreeman Naaraayanan is the unparalleled
and unsurpassed Supreme Self.

Few more texts from Upanishads - arguments and counter-arguments
There is someone who quotes from the veda a verse "Siva Eva Kevala:" meaning
"Siva is alone (the cause - therefore Siva is Supreme without a second
person). The person who has raised this objection has not studied the Veda and
the context where this verse occurs. The context is regarding the cause of the
universe, which is Brahman. "Siva" is a common noun meaning "Auspicious". It
assumes any gender as per its usage as adjective with a noun in Sanskrit as it
is a common noun. Further here in this context, "Siva" is associated with
all-pervasive nature and by the term "Bhagavan" which are unique only to
Shreeman Naaraayana. Therefore the term "Siva" cannot mean "Paarvathy Pati -
Rudra" here, but only means "Lakshmi Pati - Vishnu". Vishu is ever aspicious
(Pure by his nature itself on the other hand Paarvathy pati got his sins
removed by Vishnu and became pure (siva) and he is not pure by his nature)
Another objection raises by quoting the vedic verse "Sambhuhu Aakaasa Madye
iDhyeyaha". The context in which this verse occurs is also regarding the cause
of the universe. Here in this context, a question "Who should be meditated
upon (by those who aspire for moksha)?" is raised. The answer is given as
"That person who is the Cause of the universe is to be meditated upon"
(Kaaranam tu iDhyeyaha" and it says that the person is called "Sambhu". Again
readers, "Sambhu" is a common noun derived from "Asmaat Sam Bhavathi iti
Sambhu" meaning, "From him/it, originates bliss". Therefore it is not
necessary that it should denote only one particular person. As we see the
context of this word "Sambhu", we have to only conclude that Shreeman
Naaraayana alone is denoted by the word "Sambhu" as he is the cause of the
universe and from him originates the moksha-bliss. Readers please see the
Sahasranaama also where the terms like "Siva", "Sambhu" etc., are used as
names of Vishnu only. Even the Advaita scholar Adi Sankara has not deviated
from this point while commenting Sahasranama. Further these names in the
context of being the cause of the universe etc., cannot be taken to mean
Paarvathy pati Rudra or any one other than Shreeman Naaraayana because the
Veda itself has clearly stated that "Na Brahma Neshaanaha Divyo Devaha Eko
Naaraayanaha" meaning, "in the beginning (ie., before creation) only the
Divine Supreme Self Naaraayana alone existed. Brahmaa and Rudra where not
existing". Similarly the common nouns like "Hiranyagarbha, Indra, Iswara,
Parameswara, Maheswara, Purusha, Mahapurusha, Swarat" etc., used in the Veda
in the context of denoting Brahman (the cause of the universe) are to be
understood only to mean "Shreeman Naaraayana" and none other than him. All
these names are found in Sahasranaama also. Thus is the application of the
Chaaga pasu nyaayam in the upanishads to ascertain that Shreeman Naaraayana is
the supreme self.

Readers, I think I have clearly explained the supremacy of Shreeman Naaraayana
using the Chaaga pasu nyaayam. These points are not written by prejudice but
only written in strict accordance with the Veda. There is no deviation from
the purport of the Veda. This understanding that Shreeman Naaraayana is the
Supreme self and no one is equal to him or greater than him is very important.
The Vedas are in full support for this point. The key concept of
Visistaadvaita is Shreeman Naaraayanan who is the Supreme self has all the
sentient (Chit/Jeeva) and insentient (Achit/Matter) entities as his body and
He is soul of everything. Shreeman Naaraayana is called the soul of everything
because he supports controls and owns everything eternally and inseparably.
Everything is controlled, supported, and owned by Shreeman Naaraayana. Thus is
the Sareera-Aatma Bhaavam or Sareera-Sareeree Bhaavam. I request the readers
to get back to me with their valuable comments and suggestion. If you have any
doubts or questions also, please do write to me.

Chaaga Pasu Nyaaya & Supremacy of Shreeman Naaraayana
Article by M.S.HARI Raamaanuja Daasan (

Dated Monday, April 10, 2000
Page 1 of 1

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