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Contents Of Brahma-Sutras

From: M.S.HARI (Madabhushi Sarangarajan Hari) (mshari_at_usa.net)
Date: Thu Apr 06 2000 - 20:53:48 PDT

Dear Shree Vaishnavaas,

Namaskaaram. I present to you the contents of the Brahma Sutra
summarised as told by Shreeman Nigamaantha Mahaa Desikan in
his famous and unparalled work called "Adhikarana Saaraavali".

The BrahmaSutras are aphorisms composed by Veda Vyasa to explain
the Brahma-Kaanda the upanishads which enlighten us regarding
the Brahman's swaroopa(reality), roopa(form), guna(Attributes),
vibhuthi-ashiwaryam(lordship). Shree Bhagavat Raamaanuja has
written commentry on BrahmaSutras and explained that only
Visistaadvaita Shree Vaishnavam's philosophy and practice is
the purport of the Veda and the philosophy of Veda Vyasa. Shreeman
Nigamaanta Maha Desikan who is an extraordinary Aachaarya in our
tradition has composed "Adhikarana Saaraavali" wherein, he has
composed a hymn for each Adhikarana explained in Shree Bhaashya
in a condensed form. 

Aadhikaranam is a sub-section in paada of an aadyaaya in Brahma sutra. 
Each aadhikaranam has five components. They are Vishayam (Subject), 
Samsayam (Doubt), Poorvapaksham (Opponent view), Sidhaantam (Established 
truth with proof) and Prayojanam (Benefit of establishing the truth 
with proof).

Each chapter in BrahmaSutra has sections called paadas and each paada has 
sub-sections called the aadhikaranas. Each aadhikarana has one to many 
sutras. The first chapter is samanvaya which deals with establishing 
Shreeman Narayana as Brahman who is the only cause of universe 
(all living and non-living things), having the universe as his 
body and he being the soul of the universe. The second chapter is 
avirodha, which establishes that the Brahman thus established in the 
first chapter, cannot be refuted, or rejected by any system. The third 
chapter is saadana, which deals with the means to attain the brahman's 
lotus feet. The fourth chapter is phala, which deals with the goal, 
which is eternal bliss and service to the lotus feet of Lord Shreeman 
Narayana in the Paramapada Vaikunta, which is the transcendental 
eternal & ultimate place.

One sloka(Sanskrit) from Swamy Desikan's Adhikarana Saaravali (almost 
in the begining of the work) which explains the meaning of entire Brahma
Sutras is going to be presented along with its meaning by me as follows:

"Srashta Dehi Swanishta: Niravadhi Mahimaa Apaasta Baadha: Sritaapta:
Kaaatmaa Dehendriyaadehe Uchita Jananakrut Samsrwtow Tantra Vaahi
Nirdhoshatvaadi Ramyo Bhahu Bhajana Padam Swaarha Karma Prasaadya:
Paapachid Brahma Naadi Gatikrut Athivahan Saamyadascha Atra Vedya:"

Meaning with chapter-paada summary is as follows(in brief):

CHAPTER 1
=========
Paada 1 : "Srashta" - Shreeman Naaraayanan is the Brahman who is the          
     creator (& sustainer, destroyer) of the universe
Paada 2 : "Dehi" - Shreeman Naaraayanan has all the sentient and
          insentients (chit & achits) as his body and He is the soul
Paada 3 : "Swanishta:" Shreeman Naaraayanan is the Supreme Self and
          is the supporter/controller/sheshi of the universe and is
          unparalled and unsurpassed
Paada 4 : "Niravadhi Mahimaa" - Shreeman Naaraayanan is infinite
          with infinite supremacy.

CHAPTER 2
=========
Paada 1 : "Apaasta Baadha:" - The supreme self thus established in
          the first chapter cannot be refuted or rejected by any
          system like Saankya, Yoga, Charuvaaka, Vaishesika,
          Bowdha, Jaina, Paasupata and others.
Paada 2 : "Sritaapta:" - The supreme self Shreeman Naaraayana is
          the only dependable for those who surrender to him as
          He is the author of Shree Paancharaatra Aagama which
 	  alone is recognised by Brahma Sutra to be in accordance
          with the Veda and equivalent to Veda.
Paada 3 : "Kaaatmaa " - Shreeman Naaraayana is the creator of ether &
          jeevatman 
Paada 4: "Dehendriyaadehe Uchita Jananakrut" - Shreeman Naaraayana is
          the creator of the body of Jeevas and the Jeevas sense organs
          according to the individual Jeeva's anaadi karma.

CHAPTER 3
=========
Paada 1 : "Samsrwtow Tantra Vaahi" - Shreeman Naaraayana is the 
          controler of the entire universe's actions and inactions.
Paada 2 : "Nirdhoshatvaadi Ramyo" - Shreeman Naarayana is identified
          by ubhaya-lingam - the two identifications namely
          "Infinite with infinite divine qualities/attributes" and
          "Untouched by all impurities" though He is present inside
          and outside of all chit and achit tatvaas always.
Paada 3 : "Bhahu Bhajana Padam" - Shreeman Naaraayana is the goal
          of all Bhakthi Vidyaas mentioned in the upanishads. He alone
          is meditated upon by people who wish to get liberation(moksha)
Paada 4 : "Swaarha Karma Prasaadya:" - Shreeman Naaraayana alone grants
          the results to all as per their karma. He alone grants all
	  the four purushaarthas namely Dharma, Artha, Kaama and
          Moksha.

CHAPTER 4
=========
Paada 1 : "Paapachid" - Shreeman Naaraayana destroys the obstacles
         (paapa and punya) of those who practice Bhakti or Prapathi
         and purifies them and thus makes them to be qualified for
         getting Moksha.
Paada 2 : "Brahma Naadi Gatikrut" - Shreeman Naaraayana makes the
         jeevaatman (who has done Bhakthi or Prapathi) to leave the
         material body through the "Brahma Naadi" when the Jeeva's
         papa and punya are removed.
Paada 3 : "Athivahan" - Shreeman Naaraayana leads the Jeevaatman
         in the Archiraadhi Gathi to Shree Vaikunta Paramapada.
Paada 4 : "Saamyadascha Atra Vedya:" - Shreeman Naaraayana grants
         "Saaloka", "Saaroopiya", "Saameepya", "Saayujya" to the
         Mukta Jeeva. "Saaloka" - Jeeva reaches the Shree Vaikunta
         Loka which is trancendental and immperishable. "Saaroopiya"
         - Jeeva gets divine body of SudhaSatva like that of Shreeman
         Naaraayana. "Saameepya" - Jeeva goes near Shreeman Naaraayana
         in the Paramapada. "Saayujya" - Jeeva eternally does service
         to the Lotus feet of Shreeman Naaraayana along with Nitya 
         soories and other muktas and never returns to the material
         world. Thus Shreeman Naaraayana who is the ParaBrahma Butha
         is known from the Saareeraka Saastra which is the Brahma 
         sutra - the purport of entire Vedas.

Dear Bhaagavatas, having read this, please do get back to me if
you have any doubts/questions. I am waiting for your valuable
comments and suggestions.

Regards
M.S.HARI Raamaanuja Daasan
Singapore








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