Veda mantras or sacred hymns play a key role in every step of the traditional Hindu marriage. The mantras for this ceremony come mostly from the ṛks housed in the tenth mandala of the Rg Veda, where Sūrya, the daughter of the sun god, is given in marriage to a bridegroom by the name of Soma. These mantras are mostly from Section 10.85.
Many Divya Desams have references in their traditional histories (sthala purâṇas) to the Lord seeking the hand of Maha Lakshmi, who is raised by a maharishi after discovering her as an infant of divine origin (ayonijâ). For instance, in Oppiliappan Koil, Markandeya Maharishi accedes to the request of Sriman Narayana who seeks the hand of his daughter Bhūmi Devi. She was found as a child in the tulasi forest by the Maharishi. At Kumbakonam, Sarngapani weds Komalavalli, the daughter of Hema Maharishi. At Thiruvahindrapuram, Hēmâmbujavalli, the daughter of another rishi, marries Dēvanâthan in a Vedic ceremony. At Tirupati, Srinivasa marries Padmavati after seeking her hand from her father, Akasa Rajan. At Tiru Idavendai, the Lord got the name of Nitya Kalyâṇar through his marriage to the 360 daughters of Kalava Rishi. He married them each one a day and made them all into one named Akhilavalli Nacciyar.
The most celebrated one is the wedding of Andal and Ranganatha. Ranganatha seeks the hand of Andal from her father Periyalvar and weds her in a ceremony at Srivilliputtur. Andal had previously dreamt about this marriage and recorded the wedding in detail in her Nacciyar Tirumozhi, Varanamayiram section, exactly as prescribed in the Vedic ceremony.
In the following sections, I will describe the steps of a Vedic wedding and their significance.
This step is a part of Kanya Varanam, where the groom-to-be (brahmachari) sends two elders on his behalf to the father of a girl whom he wishes to marry. The elders convey the message of the brahmachari and ask for the daughter’s hand. The two mantras in the form of brahmachari’s appeal to intercede on his behalf come from Rg 10.32.1 (“pra sugmantha…”) and 10.85.23. The first mantra begs the elders to proceed and return quickly with success back from their mission on his behalf. The second mantram (“anruksharaa Rjava:…”) asks for the gods’ blessings for the elders’ safe journey to the house of the father of the would-be-bride. The mantra prays to Aryama and Bhaga for a marriage full of harmony. The father accedes to the request of the elders and the resulting agreement for betrothal is known as vaak daanam.
Here, the brahmachari meets his prospective father-in-law. The latter seats him facing the eastern direction and washes the feet of the future son-in-law, considering him as Lord Vishnu Himself. All honors are given including the ceremonial washing of the feet of the groom by the father-in-law and offer of madhu parka (a mixture of yogurt, honey and ghee) to the accompaniment of selected Veda mantras.
In this ritual, the bridegroom and the bride look at each other formally for the first time. The bridegroom worries about any dośa (defects) that the bride might have and prays to the gods Varuna, Brihaspati, Indra and Surya to remove every defect and to make her fit for harmonious and long marriage life blessed with progeny and happiness (mantra: Rg 10.85.44). The bride groom recites the mantra and wipes the eyebrows of the bride with a blade of darbha grass, as if he is chasing away all defects. The darbha grass is thrown behind the bride at the conclusion of this ceremony.
Five Veda mantras are recited to sanctify the bride in preparation for the subsequent stages of the marriage. This aspect of the marriage is known as mangala snanam. The sun god (Surya), water god (Varuna), and other gods are invoked to purify the bride in preparation for a harmonious married life. Next, the bride wears the marriage clothes to the accompaniment of additional Veda mantras. The bridegroom then ties a darbha rope around the waist of the bride and leads her to the place, where the sacred fire is located for conducting the rest of the marriage ceremony. The bride and the groom sit on a new mat in front of the fire. The groom recites three mantras which invoke Soma, Gandharva and Agni to confer strength, beauty, and youth on the bride.
There is no Veda Mantram for tying the mangala sutram (auspicious thread) around the neck of the bride by the groom. The latter takes the mangala sutram in his hands and recites the following verse:
After mângalya dhâranam, the groom lowers his right palm and encloses it over the right hand of the bride. He covers all the five fingers of the right hand of the bride with his right palm through this act of paani grahanam. He recites mantras in praise of Bhaga, Aryama, Savita, Indra, Agni, Suryan, Vayu and Saraswati, while holding the bride’s hand. He prays for long life, progeny, prosperity and harmony with the bride during their married life. The closed fingers of the right hand of the bride is said to represent her heart. The pâṇi grahaṇam ritual symbolizes the bride surrendering her heart in the hands of the groom during the occasion of the marriage.
During this ritual, the groom walks with the bride to the right side of the sacred fire. All along, he holds his wife’s right hand in his right hand in the way in which he held her hand during the pâṇi grahaṇam ceremony. He stops, bends down and holds the right toe of his wife with his right hand and helps her take seven steps around the fire. At the beginning of each step, he recites a Veda mantra to invoke the blessings of Maha Vishnu. Through these seven mantras, he asks Maha Vishnu to follow in the footsteps of his wife and bless her with food, strength, piety, progeny, wealth, comfort and health. At the conclusion of the seven steps, he addresses his wife with a moving statement from the Veds summarized below:
Dear Wife! By taking these seven steps, you have become my dearest friend. I pledge my unfailing loyalty to you.
This series of Veda mantras starting with “sakhâ saptapadâ bhava…” and ending with “pumse putrâya…” are rich with meaning and imagery.
After sapta padi, the couple take their seat on the western side of the sacred fire and conduct pradhâna homam. During the conductance of this homam, the bride must place her right hand on her husband’s body so that she gets the full benefit of the homam through symbolic participation. Sixteen mantras are recited to the accompaniment of pouring a spoon of clarified butter into the sacred fire at the end of recitation of each of the mantras. These mantras salute Soma, Gandharva, Agni, Indra, Vayu, the Aswini Devas, Savita, Brihaspati, Viswa Devas and Varuna for blessing the marriage and beseeches them to confer long wedded life, health, wealth, children and freedom from all kinds of worries. One prayer — the sixth mantra — has a sense of humor and provides deep insight into human psychology. The text of this mantra is: “daśâsyaṁ putrân dehi, patim ekâdaśaṁ kṛti”. Here, the groom asks Indra to bless the couple with ten children and requests that he be blessed to become the eleventh child of his bride in his old age.
After pradhâna homam, the husband holds the right toe of his wife and lifts her leg and places it on a flat granite grinding stone known as “ammi” in Tamil. The ammi stands at the right side of the sacred fire. The husband recites a Veda mantra when he places the right foot of his wife on the ammi:
After ammi stepping, a ceremony of doing homam with puffed rice is conducted. Here, the wife cups her hands and the brothers of the bride fill the cupped hands with puffed rice. The husband adds a drop of ghee to the puffed rice and recites five Veda mantras. At the end of each of the recitation, the puffed rice is thrown into the sacred fire as havis (offering) to Agni. Through these mantras, the wife prays for long life for her husband and for a marriage filled with peace and harmony. At the end of the lâja homam, the husband unties the darbha (grass) belt around the waist of his wife with another mantra. The husband states through this mantra that he unites his wife and ties her now with the bonds of Varuna and invites her to be a full partner in his life to enjoy the blessings of wedded life.
This ceremony relates to the journey of the wife to her husband’s home. The husband carries the sacred fire (homa agni) in a earthern vessel during this journey home. There are many Veda mantras associated with this journey. These mantras pray to the appropriate Vedic gods to remove all obstacles that one can experience in a journey. The bride is requested to become the mistress of the house and is reminded of her important role among the relatives of her husband. After reaching her new home, she puts her right foot first in the house and recites the following Veda mantra:
After gṛha praveśam, a fire ritual known as prâviśya homam is performed by the couple to the accompaniment of thirteen mantras from the Rg Veda. Jayadi Homam is also part of the prâviśya homam. This homam offers the salutation of the newly married couple to Agni Deva and asks for strength and nourishment to discharge the duties of a grihasthas for the next one hundred years. After that, the bride shifts her position from the right side of her husband to his left side. At that time, once again, she recites a Veda mantra invoking the gods for blessings of children and wealth to perform the duties of a householder.
At the end of the above homam, a child is placed on the lap of the bride and she offers a fruit to the child, while reciting a prescribed Veda mantra. Yet another mantram asks the assembled guests to bless the bride and then retire to their own individual homes peacefully. During the first evening of the stay in her new home, the couple see the stars known as Dhruva (pole star) and Arundhati. The husband points out the pole star and prays for the strength and stability of the household thru a Veda mantra. Next, the husband points out the Arundhati star to his wife and describes to her the the story of Arundhati and her legendary chastity.
The rich and meaningful ceremony of the Hindu marriage (Kalyâṇa Mahotsavam of the temples) is thus carried out in concert with sacred Veda Mantras. The bride and bridegroom should enunciate clearly the Veda mantras and reflect on their meanings during the different stages of the marriage ceremony. This way, they can be sure of a long, happy and prosperous married life and play their appropriate role in society to the fullest extent. Srinivasa Kalyanam is performed in the temples to remind us of these hoary Vedic traditions behind a Hindu marriage.
lokâḥ samastâḥ sukhino bhavantu |
sarvamangaḷâni santu ||
Oppiliappan Koil Varadachari Sadagopan
December 10, 1995